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.J 



[united states bureau of education 

(BULLETIN, 1915, NO. 23 WHOLE NUMBER 650 



KE TEACHING OF COMMUNITY 

CIVICS 



PREPARED BY A SPECIAL COMMITTEE OF THE 

COMMISSION ON THE REORGANIZATION OF 

SECONDARY EDUCATION NATIONAL 

EDUCATION ASSOCIATION 

CONSISTING OF 

J. LYNN BARNARD 

SCHOOL OP PEDAGOGY. PHILADELPHIA 

F. W. CARRIER 

PRINCIPAL WILMINGTON (MASS.) HIGH SCHOOL 

ARTHUR WILLIAM DUNN 

SPECIALIST IN CIVIC EDUCATION 
UNITED STATES BUREAU OP EDUCATION 

and 

CLARENCE D. KINGSLEY 

HIGH SCHOOL INSPECTOR. MASSACHUSETTS BOARD OP EDUCATION 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1915 



UNITED STATES BUREAU OF EDUCATION 

BULLETIN, 1915, NO. 23 WHOLE NUMBER 650 



« » > » 



THE TEACHING OF COMIVlUNITY 

CIVICS 



PREPARED BY A SPECIAL COMMITTEE OF THE 

COMMISSION ON THE REORGANIZATION OF 

SECONDARY EDUCATION NATIONAL 

EDUCATION ASSOCIATION 

CONSISTING OF 

J. LYNN BARNARD 

SCHOOL OF PEDAGOGY. PHILADELPHIA 

F. W. CARRIER 

PRINCIPAL WILMINGTON (MASS.) HIGH SCHOOL 

ARTHUR WILLIAM DUNN 

SPECIALIST IN CIVIC EDUCATION 
UNITED STATES BUREAU OF EDUCATION 

and 

CLARENCE D. KINGSLEY 

HIGH SCHOOL INSPECTOR. MASSACHUSETTS BOARD OF EDUCATION 




WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFRCE 

1915 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

or THIS PUBUCATION MAY BE PROCURED FROSl 

THE RUPrRINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

10 CENTS PER COPY 
V 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Letter of transmittal 5 

Preface 7 

Part I : Aims and Methods in Teaching Community Civics 9 

"Who is the good citizen?. 9 

Stages in developing good citizenship 9 

What is community civics? 11 

Place of community civics in the school program 11 

Specific aims of community civics 12 

Elements of welfare suggested as topics 12 

Method of teaching community ci\'ics 13 

Application of principles to conduct 18 

Part 1 1 : Suggested Treatment of the Elements of Welfare 20 

Health 20 

Protection of life and property 24 

Recreation 26 

Education 28 

Civic beauty 31 

Wealth 33 

Communication 37 

Transportation 39 

Migration 41 

Charities 42 

Correction 46 

How governmental agencies are conducted 48 

How governmental agencies are financed 49 

How voluntary agencies are conducted and financed 50 

Part III : Bibliographical Suggestions 51 

Textbooks 51 

Source materials : 51 

Reference texts 52 

Laboratory material 53 

References on method 54 

3 



449047 



LETTER OF TRANSMIHAL. 



Department of the Interior, 

Bureau of Education, 

Washington, June 8, 1915. 

Sir: For good citizenship men and women must not only have 
good will, but an abiding interest in the w^eKare of the commimity. 
They must also have a working knowledge of social agencies, good 
judgment as to methods of social activities, and a more or less com- 
prehensive imderstanding of fundamental principles of social life and 
progress. • Much can be done in childhood and in the elementary 
grades of the school to create mterest and give a certahi amount of 
concrete knowledge of particular social activities and agencies, but 
not until bo3^s and girls have reached the years of adolescence, the 
high-school age, can they begin to gam any very full understandmg 
of abstract principles of social, civic, and governmental life. Instruc- 
tion m this subject m the high school is therefore of utmost impor- 
tance. For use in the high schools many textbooks and manuals 
have been prepared on this subject, some good and some not so good, 
but there is -still need for good manuals on the subject of community 
civics that wiU help teachers to treat the subject in an inductive way 
and to relate it properly to other subjects and to the past, present, 
and future life of the students. The manuscript transmitted here- 
with offers such help, and I therefore recommend that it be published 
as a bulletin of the Bureau of Education. It was prepared by a 
special committee of the National Education Association's commission 
on the reorganization of secondary education. This special commit- 
tee consists of Prof. J. Lynn Barnard, of the PhUadelphia School of 
Pedagogy; Clarence D. Kingsley, liigh-school inspector for the ^las- 
sachusetts State Board of Education; F. W. Carrier, principal of the 
Wilmington (Mass.) High School; and Arthur Wdliam Dunn, special 
agent in civic education for this bureau. 

Respectfully submitted. 



The Secretary of the Interior. 



P. P. Claxton, 

Commissioner. 



PREFACE. 



The substance of this manual was developed in the summer of 
1914 when Dr. J. Lynn Barnard, at the invitation of the Massachu- 
setts Board of Education, conducted a course at Hyannis for teachers 
of community civics. Part of the material used in Dr. Barnard's 
course was gathered by a committee of Massachusetts teachers con- 
sistmg of Margaret McGill, Newton High School, chairman; F. W. 
Carrier, principal Wilmington (Mass.) High School; Walter H. Gush- 
ing, principal Framingham High School; Mabel Hill, Dana Hall 
School, Wellesley; Clarence D. Kingsley, high-school inspector, Mas- 
sachusetts Board of Education; and Winthrop Tirrell, Boston High 
School of Commerce. During the past year the undersigned, who 
were constituted a special committee of the committee on social 
studies of the National Education Association's commission on reor- 
ganization of secondary education, have given much time to the 
preparation of the manual. The committee desires to acknowledge 
valuable suggestions from Dr. David Snedden, Commissioner of Edu- 
cation, Massachusetts; Thomas Jesse Jones, of the United States 
Bureau of Education and chairman of the committee on social 
studies; and Jessie C. Evans, of the William Penn High School for 

Girls, Philadelohia. 

J. Lynn Barnard. 

F. W. Carrier. 
Arthur W. Dunn. 
Clarence D. Kjngsley. 
June 15, 1915. 

97151°— 15 2 ' 7 



• * « 



THE TEACHING OF CCMMUNlTYCIVlCSu- 



PART I. 

AIMS AND METHODS IN TEACHING COMMUNITY CIVICS. 



I. WHO IS THE GOOD CITIZEN? 

The good citizen may be defined as a pereon who habitually 
conducts himself with proper regard for the welfare of the communi- 
ties of which he is a member, and who is active and intelligent in 
his cooperation with his fellow members to that end. 

The welfare both of the individual and of the community depends 
upon various factors, such as health, education, recreation, civic 
• beauty, wealth, communication, transportation. In order to 
secure these elements of welfare the individual and the community 
are dependent upon many social agencies, such as pure-food laws, 
schools, playgrounds, parks, factories, post offices, railroads. The 
usefuhiess of such social agencies depends upon the intelligence 
and readmess with which the members of the community establish, 
direct, and cooperate with them. They may be classified as govern- 
mental or voluntary according to the nature of their support. 

It is evident, therefore, that the good citizen will possess an 
abiding interest in the welfare of the community, a working knowledge 
of social agencies, and good judgment as to those means and methods 
that will promote one social end without at the same time defeating 
other social ends. Furthermore, he must have the point of view 
that progress is essential in order that he may do as well by civiliza- 
tion as did his fathers before him. Every community also needs 
citizens who possess a large measure of social initiative and the 
power of leadership. 

n. STAGES IN DEVELOPING GOOD CITIZENSHIP. 

Training for good citizenship must begin even before the child 
enters school and must continue through school, and indeed through 
life. Four stages in the process are well marked. 

1 . Before the child enters ■ school he receives from the family 
life itself his first impressions of cooperation and responsibility. 
Whether these impressions and the social habits inculcated shall be 
for good or for ill depends upon the atmosphere and efforts of the 

9 



10 TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 

home. IJoraP educaition is? thus the first factor in the development of 
good citizQiVship. . V : :• : •. / 

2. Betwe<jn,th.o.ages of .6 arid 12 the child enters the larger com- 
munity-, .the sth'ool. ■ 'The * establishment of right social relations 
by and within the school is now of prime importance. Moreover, 
the school should consciously interpret to the child the community 
nature of the home, for the teacher can speak as an interested 
outsider regarding the relation of the child to the parent. The 
school should also lead him to see how the grocer, the iceman, the 
pohceman, the postman, and many others in the larger community 
outside of the home and the school enter into his life and contribute 
to his welfare and the welfare of others. Civic education at this 
stage need not consider the organized agencies through which men 
cooperate, but the pupil must become more and more conscious of the 
interdependence of individuals in the community. Through the 
study of appropriate literatm'e and through acquaintance with noble 
characters of history he should form ideals of loyalty and of personal 
honor and integrity. 

3. Between the ages of 12 and 15, the early adolescent period, 
the outside community enters more largelj- into the pupil's expe- 
rience, and it should be interpreted to him in terms of wider human 
relationship. Accordingly, the civic education of the youth should 
include elementary history, community civics, and some study or 
survey of typical vocations. 

Community civics should be taught during this period in the 
child's life, so that when the psychological changes of adolescence 
occur there shall have- been laid a basis for turning the social instinct 
displayed in the gang spirit of boys and in the groping sentimentality 
of girls into useful channels of social feeling, social thougJit, and social 
action. In this course the civic grasp of the pupil should be strength- 
ened by helping him to compare the conditions in his own community 
with those in other communities, and the conditions in his own 
time with those of other times. Moreover, this habit of comparing 
social conditions will be almost indispensable to the pupil when he 
comes to the history that should follow, because the new type of 
history is placing its emphasis on such comparisons. 

The study of vocations here suggested should be taught during 
this period not merely to help the pupil choose his vocation intelli- 
gently, when the time comes to make such choice; but it should be so 
taught as to make it perfectly clear to the pupil that each citizen 
in his choice of vocation, in his preparation for it, and especially 
in the way in which he conducts himself after he has entered upon it, 
shows the quality of his citizenship. This study should also give the 
pupil a respect and an appreciation for many vocations and should 



AIMS AND METHODS. 11 

thus develop a better understanding between citizens of diverse 
callings, including a better understanding between capital and labor. 

4. Between the ages of 15 and 18, the civic education of the third 
period should be continued by means of courses in history and 
elementary economics, culminating in an advanced course in civics. 

Not civics alone, but the entire group of social studies — civics, 
history, and economics — should have for its immediate aim the 
training of the good citizen. It should stiU further be recognized 
■ that the work of the public school m trainmg for citizenship is not 
limited even to the social studies, but involves a socialized pomt of 
view for all mstruction and for aU school management and discipline. 
With this recognition of the problem of civic education in all its 
breadth, this bulletin is designed to give help hi one phase of the 
subject only, namely, community civics. 

m. WHAT IS COMMUNITY CIVICS? 

The social study to which the name ''community civics" has been 
applied is well defined or described m Civic Education Circular No. 1, 
issued by the United States Bureau of Education: 

The aim of community civics is to help the child to know his community — not 
merely a lot of facts about it, but the meauing of his community life, what it does for 
him and how it does it, what the community has a right to expect from him, and how 
he may fulfill his obligation, meanwhile cultivating in him the essential qualities aud 
habits of good citizenship. 

Community civics lays emphasis upon the local community because (1) it is the 
community with which every citizen, especially the child, comes into most intimate 
relations, and which is always in the foreground of experience; (2) it is easier for the 
child, as for any citizen, to realize his membership in the local community, to feel a 
sense of personal responsibility for it, and to enter into actual cooperation with it, than 
is the case vnth the national community. 

But our Nation and our State are communities, as well as our city or village, and a 
child is a citizen of the larger as of the smaller community. The significance of the 
term "community civics" does not lie in its geographical implications, but in its 
implication of community relations, of a community of interests. * * * It is a 
question of point of view; and community civics applies this point of view to the 
stud)' of the national community as well as to the study of the local community. 

IV. PLACE OF COMMUNITY CIVICS IN THE SCHOOL PROGRAM. 

Community civics should be taught in the elementary gi'ades, and 
should be contmued in a more comprehensive course in the first year 
of the high school. Many pupils do not enter high school at all; and 
those who do should aheady have begun to acquire habits of civic 
thought and action. Experience proves that pupils who have had 
such training in the elementary schools are the better prepared for 
their high-school work, especially in the field of social studies. They 
are also the better prepared for the transition to the larger freedom 
and responsibility of the high school. But civic training must be a 
continuous nrocess, and the gi'eater maturity of the high-school pupil 



12 TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 

makes possible the development of phases of the subject that are 
impracticable in the elementary school. 

It is suggested that five periods per week be devoted to community 
civics through the entire freshman year, although a part of the year 
may well be used for a survey of vocations whenever the teachers are 
prepared. (See p. 10.) 

The methods and subject matter suggested in this bulletm are 
adapted both to the seventh and eighth grades of the elementary 
school and to the freshman year of the high school; but the scope of 
the elementary and high-school courses, when both are given, should 
be agreed upon by teachers and local school authorities to avoid 
duplication. It may be found desirable, however, for the high-school 
class to study from a new angle some of the topics considered in the 
elementary school. 

V. SPECIFIC AIMS OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 

To accomplish its part in the training for citizenship, community 
civics should aim primarily to lead the pupil: 

1. To see the importance and significance oj the elements of community 
welfare (see below and p. 1) in their relations to himseH and to the 
communities of which he is a member; 

2. To Icnow the social agencies, governmental and voluntary, that 
exist to secure these elements of community welfare; 

3. To recognize his civic ohli gation , present and Juture, and to 
respond to them by appropriate action. 

These three aims are given in the above order because it is essential 
to the success of this course that at the outset the interest of the pupil 
be attached to the elements of common welfare, and that he be taught 
to think of each agency as a means to an end and not as an end in 
itself. Each part of the study should culminate in a recognition of 
personal responsibility as a good citizen, and, as far as possible, in 
appropriate action. 

Many courses in civics fail because they fix attention upon the 
machinery of government rather than upon the elements of commu- 
nity welfare for which government exists; that is, they familiarize 
the pupil vrith the manipulation of the social machinery without 
showing him the importance of the social ends for which this machin- 
ery should be used. Consequently, the pupil, upon leaving school, 
uses his knowledge for ends which are most evident to him, namely, 
his o^vn selfish interests. 

VI. ELEMENTS OF WELFARE SUGGESTED AS TOPICS. 

For the purpose of this course in community civics it is suggested 
that the following elements of welfare be studied as topics : (1) Health; 
(2) Protection of life and property; (3) Recreation; (4) Education; 



AIMS AND METHODS. 13 

(5) Civic beauty; (6) Wealth; (7) Communication; (8) Transporta- 
tion; (9) Migration; (10) Charities; (11) Correction. 

The attempt has been made to arrange these elements of welfare 
in an order that seems suitable for teaching rather than in the order 
m which the sociologist would think of them. But each teacher 
should exercise judgment in adapting the order to the needs and cur- 
rent interests of the class. 

In addition, the course may well include the following topics dealing 
with the mechanism of community agencies: 

(12) How governmental agencies are conducted. 

(13) How governmental agencies are financed. 

(14) How voluntary agencies are conducted and financed. 

Vn. METHOD OF TEACmNG COMMUNITY CIVICS. 
(a) social facts upon which the method should be based. 

1. The pupU is a young citizen with real present interests at stake. 
He is dependent upon the community for his education, which wiU 
largely determine his ability to earn a livelihood and to enjoy both 
his work and his leisure. He is dependent upon the community for 
recreation; for the protection of health, life, and property; for the 
beauty of his surroundings; for the ease with which he may commu- 
nicate with his friends. 

It is the first task of the teacher, therefore, not to create an interest 
for future use, but to demonstrate existing mterests and present 
citizenship. 

2. The pupil as a young citizen is a real factor in community affairs. 
His cooperation in many phases of community life is quite as impor- 
tant as that of the adult. He may help in forming public opinion, not 
only among his mates, but in the home and in the community at large. 

Therefore it is a task of the teacher to cultivate in the pupil a sense 
of his responsibility, present as well as future. 

3. If a citizen has an interest in civic matters and a sense of his 
personal responsibility, he will want to act. 

Therefore the teacher must help the pupil to express his convictions 
in word' and deed. He must be given an opportunity, as far as pos- 
sible, to live his civics both in the school and in the community outside. 

4. Right action depends not only upon information, interest, and 
wUl, but also upon good judgment. 

Hence the young citizen must be trained to weigh facts and to 
judge relative values, both in regard to what constitute tlie essential 
elements in a situation and in regard to the best means of meeting it. 

5. Every citizen possesses a largo amount of unorganized informa- 
tion regarding community affairs. The amount of such information 
possessed collectively by an ordinary class of wideawake young 



^ 



14 TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 

citizens 12 to 15 years of age is surprisingly large. But it is frag- 
mentary, often erroneous, and usually unorganized. 

It is, therefore, important to teach the pupils how to test and organ- 
ize their knowledge regarding community affairs. 

6. People are, as a rule, most ready to act upon those convictions 
that they have helped to form by their own mental processes and that 
are based upon their own experience and observation. 

Hence the teacher should act as a guide and should lead the class: 

(1) To contribute facts from their own experience, 

(2) To contribute other facts gathered by themselves, 

(3) To use their own reasoning powers in forming conclusions, and 

(4) To submit these conclusions to criticism. 

7. The class has the essential characteristics of a community. 
Therefore the method by which the class exercises are conducted is 
of the utmost importance in the cultivation of civic qualities and 
habits. Cooperation in contributing information; the give-and-take 
of class discussion; regai'd for the contributions and opinions of 
others; personal responsibihty for the class weKare; the attitude of 
the teacher as a fellow citizen with the pupils, and a learner along 
with them; all of these help to cultivate interest, judgment, initiative, 
cooperation, power to organize knowledge, and other qualities of 
good citizenship. In short, the class should exem.plify the right 
community spirit. 

(b) three steps IN TEACHING AN ELEMENT OF WELFARE WHEN 

TAKEN AS A TOPIC. 

The study of each topic of this kind should consist of the following 
steps : 

1. Approach to the topic. 

2. Investigation of agencies by which the element of weKare is 
secured. 

3. Recognition of responsibihty, present and future, with respect 
to the topic under consideration. 

(1) Approach to the topic— -In beginning the study of an element 
of welfare the teacher should lead the pupils to realize its importance 
to themselves, to their neighbors, and to the community, and to see 
the dependence of the individual upon social agencies. 

Much depends upon the method of approach. The planning of an 
approach appropriate to a given topic and applicable to a given 
class calls for ingenuity and resourcefulness. In this bulletin the 
approaches to various topics are suggested by way of illustration, 
but the teacher should try to find another approach whenever he 
thinks the one suggested is not the best one for his class. 

In the approach it is especially important to draw upon the ex- 
perience and observation of the class. As facts are contributed, the 



AIMS AND METHODS. 15 

teacher jnay summarize them upon the blackboard or use some other 
device to have the class consciously pool their experiences. 

(2) Investigation of agencies. — The knowledge of the class should 
now be extended by a concrete and more or less detailed investiga- 
tion of agencies such as those suggested in this bulletin. These in- 
vestigations should consist largely of first-hand observation and 
study of local conditions. 

It is advised that the first agency considered in the course be 
' investigated by the entire class under the direction of the teacher, 
so as to get a method of work. After that, agencies may be studied 
sometimes by the class as a whole and sometimes by groups of pupils, 
the choice of procedure depending on the difficulty of the agency, 
its importance, and the degree to which the class has secured a social 
point of view. 

The agencies suggested under each topic in the outline are so 
many that no attempt should be made to have the class as a whole 
study them all intensively. Such an attempt would result in super- 
ficiality, kill interest, and defeat the purpose of the course. In gen- 
eral, the more skillful the teacher, the more wiU he find that the class 
can do profitably under any agency. It will often be found advis- 
able to study in detail one or more agencies under a given topic, and 
then to make a rapid survey of others. 

The following considerations will be helpful in selecting the agencies 
for intensive study. 

(a) Agencies of current interest to the community. — A proposed State 
road, new health regulations in view of a recent epidemic, or a new 
system of fire protection, may be so prominently in the thought of the 
community that the class can secure a large amount of material from 
the newspapers and from the opinions of their parents. This of 
course would add to the interest and effectiveness of the study. 

(h) Agencies of immediate interest to the class. — -An atliletic field, a 
new school building, moving-picture shows, school lunches, rules of 
athletic associations, and boy scouts, may be of immediate interest 
to the pupils themselves. 

(c) Agencies of special interest to the teacher. — The teacher may be 
so familiar with certain agencies that he can deal with them effec- 
tively, but his own knowledge is of importance only so far as it helps 
him to make the study more profitable to the pupils. In dealing 
with an agency with which he is not familiar, he should never hesitate 
to take the rdle of learner and join with' his pupils in the work of 
investigation. 

{d) Significance of the agency. — The agencies studied intensively 
should always be those that serve to bring out important facets, con- 
ditions, or obligations and should never bo chosen merely because 
they are superficially interesting. Tliey should be those that cou- 
97151°— 15— 3 



16 TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 

tribute directly and vitally to the element of welfare under which 
they arc discussed. 

(3) Recognition of responsibility. — A lesson in community civics 
is not complete unless it leaves with the pupil a sense of his pereonal 
responsibility and results in right action. To attain these ends is 
perhaps the most difhcult and delicate task of the teacher. It is 
discussed here as the third step in teachmg an element of welfare; 
in practice, however, it is a process coincident with the first two steps 
and resulting from them. A proper sense of responsibihty can only 
grow out of a correct perception of one's community relations; and 
a desire to act, from a realization of vital interest in a situation. If 
the work suggested in the foregoing para,graphs on "approach" and 
"investigation of agencies" has been weU done, the pupil's sense of 
responsibihty, his desire to act, and his knowledge of how to act 
wiU thereby have been developed. Indeed, the extent to which they 
have been developed is in a measure a test of the effectiveness of the 
"approach" and the study of agencies. 

A distinction should be made between the present and future civic 
duties of high-school j)upils. They have some civic responsibihties 
now; others await them in adult life. They must be prepared for 
both. The teacher should be cai-eful to cultivat-e judgment as to the 
lands of thmgs for which pupils should assume responsibility now. 

For example, pupils can hardly have any large responsibility for 
the water supply of their community; but they can help to conserve 
it by avoiding waste from water taps, and they can help to prevent 
the spread of disease by using individual drinking cups and by cul- 
tivating a sentiment at home against contaminating the soui'ces of 
water supply (especially if weUs or springs are used). It is hardly 
appropriate for a child to reprove the milkman for carelessness in 
handhng milk; but he may exert influence in securing proper care of 
milk and milk bottles in the home. 

A distinction should be made also between the duties of the citizen 
and the duties of the official. The citizen selects the official and 
should hold him to his task. The citizen must know the purpose to 
be achieved, the official must find out how to achieve it; the citizen 
needs a sense of values, the official technical knowledge; ih% citizen 
must be a competent employer, the official a competent executive. 
For example, in a town meeting the citizen elects officials and votes 
on appropriations of money. To discharge this duty he must be a 
judge of the kind of men who will serve faithfully and efficiently and 
must understand the purposes for which appropriations are a&ked. 
But the duty of that citizen does not end with the town meetmg. 
He should insist that these officials make reports that wiU show what 
they have accomplished and keep generally informed as to the way 
in which officials are discharging their duties. 



AIMS AND METHODS. 17 

It is important, in relation to either present or future duties, to 
develop intelligence regarding the proper chaimels through which to 
act, and how to go about it. There are cases in which a direct appeal 
from children to public officials may be entirely proper, as, for exam- 
ple, in regard to the establishment of a playground. But such appeals 
should be made under proper supervision. The good citizen should 
be able to write a courteous letter to the public official. Practice in 
writing such letters should be given to pupils, preferably relating to 
actual conditions observed by the pupUs, or containing practical 
suggestions by them. Such letters should be discussed and revised 
by the class and teachers, but should be sent to the official only after 
approval by the principal or superintendent. Regard for the time 
of pubMc officials should be cultivated, and no class should be per- 
mitted to send a number of letters where one would suffice. 

It is sometimes desirable for the class to undertake a special piece 
of work of direct use to the community. In some places pupils have 
helped to exterminate insect pests. It is important that the teacher 
should be careful to set up right motives in work of this sort. Arthur 
W. Dunn, of the United States Bureau of Education, cites the fol- 
lowing case in which wrong motives were set up. He says: 

A group of boys who were studying their own community from the standpoint of 
cleanliness and beauty were "interested " by the offer of a prize to the boy who should 
bring in the largest number of discarded tin cans. The motive set up was wrong, and 
unci vie action resulted. Intense rivalry supplanted commimity cooperation, selfish 
personal interest took the place of community interest, and some of the boys actually 
liauled into the city wagonloads of cans from the city's dumps. Good citizenship can 
only grow out of right motives. 

Participation in commmiity affairs requires good judgment as well 
as right motives. The foUowmg lesson, also reported by Mr. Dmm, 
shows how such judgment was developed in one case: 

One morning after a heavy fall of snow the question waa raised in a number of 
civics classes, "What will be the effects of this snowfall upon the life of the com- 
munity? " It was soon developed that it would interfere with traffic; that it would 
impede the work of the fire department; that if allowed to melt and freeze it would- 
become dangerous to life and limb, and that if it lay in dirty heaps it would mar the 
beauty of the city. Tlie snowfall was thus seen in various community relations 
previously discussed in. other aspects. Who cleans the snow from the roadways? 
Tliis is done for the citizens by the street-cleaning department of the city government. 
Wlio cleans the sidewalks? Tliis is not done by the city but ia left in the hands of 
the individual householders. The children observed on their way liome how many 
of the sidewalks were cleaned and reported on the number not cleaned. Wore the 
citizens left to their own discretion in this matter? No; a city ordinance commanded 
them to clean their sidewalks. Why was it not obeyed? Why waa it not enforced? 
Wliat is the effect of having a law that is not regarded? 

Tlie children took the matter to heart. They talked about it at home. Tliey 
wanted to do something about it. The question arose as to what they could do. Here 
is where the training of judgment came in. Some wanted to complain to the authori- 



18 TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 

tJCff. It was decided after diacusaion that mere complaint seldom accomplishes much. 
Some thought that they could speak personally to offenders. Tliia was decided to be 
slightly officious and perhaps offensive to older citizens. It was suggested that 
groups of boys organize to go about their neighborhoods cleaning walks. As a com- 
mercial venture this was approved, and in a few cases such groups also cleaned walks 
before vacant lots as a public service. It was concluded, however, that for boys 
to go about cleaning other people's walks as a public service when these people 
should do it themselves was shifting the burden of responsibility in a harmful way. 
What actually happened was that the boys pretty generally saw to it that their own 
walks were cleaned, learning the important lesson that in the regular course of one's 
daily tasks, such as caring for one's own premises, lies an ever-present opportunity 
for good citizenship; and further, a public sentiment on the subject was created 
starting in the classrooms, extending into the homes, and spreading through civic 
organizations and the newspapers, until the householders themselves saw to it after 
later storms that their walks were cleaned. 

In this instance, besides the cultivation of interest and motive 
in a striking degree, we see a splendid lesson in cooperation ; a whole 
community aroused, largely through the initiative of the children; 
the children participating, but not bemg led to assume too much 
responsibility in the matter; judgment exercised m regard to method 
of attackmg the problem, and finally, " action, which is the end of aU 
good citizenship and of aU good teaching." 

Vm. APPLICATION OF PRINCIPLES TO CONDUCT. 

In the past much civic instruction has been ineffective because it 
has left the pupil to work out for himself the application of general 
principles to conduct. The translation of prmciples into conduct 
is more difficult than the comprehension of the prmciples themselves. 
It is largely a matter of motive, remforced by judgment and initia- 
tive. To cultivate these is the teacher's greatest task. The natural 
human motive of self-mterest should be recognized. It is not only 
legitimate but in every way desirable to demonstrate the relation of 
civic conduct to self-interest and to utilize the latter as a channel 
through which to develop a broad spirit of service. With this in 
view it may be lielpful to analyze the conduct of the citizen: 

1. Conduct that has self-interest as an evident end. 

Under this head would come, first, care for one's own health, edu- 
cation, and character. But these things are not only necessary to 
individual success; they are also essential if one is to be useful to the 
community. They have direct civic bearing. If the citizen impedes 
the welfare of the commmiity through physical incapacity or lack of 
education and good character, it foUows that he, as a member of the 
community, will also suffer the consequences of the same defects in 
others. It is, therefore, to the interest of the citizen to care, not 
only for his own health, education, and character, but also for those 
of others. Thus a starting point is afforded for the development of 
a real sympathy and a real altruism. 



AIMS AND METHODS. 19 

Under this head may also be included the citizen's economic or 
vocational activities, and his care for his property. He works for a 
living primarily in his own interest; but he also owes it to the com- 
munity to be self-supportmg and to contribute to its economic wel- 
fare. Industry, efficiency, and thrift are civic, as well as individual, 
virtues. The citizen who is himself industrious, efficient, and thrifty 
can not get the full benefit of these qualities in himseK if they are 
lacking in other members of the community upon whom he has to 
depend. Thus, again, self-interest may lead to an appreciation of 
the civic relations of conduct. 

2. Conduct that is more evidently social in character and based 
primarily upon the interest of others or upon a common interest. 

This includes the citizen's activities in cooperation with social 
agencies, voluntary and governmental. Thus he may become a 
member of such voluntary agencies as school organizations, boy 
scouts, consumers' leagues, child-labor committees, boards of trade, 
labor miions. He may cooperate, as an individual or in association 
with other individuals, with the health department by reportmg con- 
tagious diseases; with the street-cleanmg department by not littermg 
the street; with teachers and school authorities hi the work of the 
schools; with the charity organization society by not giving aid 
indiscrimmately. Sometimes the citizen's cooperation may take 
the form of money contributions for the support of social agencies; 
and again, in proportion to mtellectual endowment and force of 
character, it may take the form of leadership in organizing and direct- 
ing such agencies. 

The citizen also has a responsibility for the support and direction 
of government, which is the recognized agency of cooperation for the 
entire community. He not oidy pays taxes for the support of gov- 
ernment, but he also has a voice, directly or indirectly, in determmmg 
the amount of money that shall be devoted to the support of each 
governmental agency. Through public opinion and the use of the 
franchise he decides what kmd of public officers shall occupy govern- 
mental positions, and may exert an influence in holding them to the 
proper performance of their duties. 

Finally, the citizen may, on occasion, be called upon to fdl positions 
in government, and thus to direct and guide the affairs of the com- 
mmiity as a whole. 

The point of emphasis in all this, however, is that while we urge 
that the citizen should engage in these activities as far as opportmiity 
offers, it is necessary to cultivate a motive sufficiently strong to lead 
him actually to do so. This motive is to be found in the common 
interest, which includes Jiis interest, at least until such time as an 
ideal altruism may lead to the placing of tlio interest of others and 
the community above the interest of self. 



PART II. 

SUGGESTED TREATMENT OF THE ELEMENTS OF 

WELFARE. 



TOPIC I.— HEALTH. 

Ajyproach to the toinc. — In the introductory lessons the first thing 
to be fixed in the consciousness of the pupil is the impoi^tance of health. 
Each pupil should be led to see its importance to Mtyi, so that the 
entire class wiU deduce the fact that they have a common mterest in 
the matter. By extension of the idea, it may be seen that health is 
a subject of common interest to the entire school and to the com- 
munity as a whole. Also each pupil should be led to realize that, in 
this important matter of health, he is dependent upon the other 
members of the class and of the school and that the other members 
are likewise dependent upon him. The same interdependence exists 
in the community at large. This being true, the members of the 
class, the school, the city, the State, and the Nation must worlc 
together, and to this end defuiite provisions have been made by com- 
mimities. Whether these community arrangements for health prove 
effective or not depends largely upon the interest and intelligence 
with v/hich each citizen supports them. 

The following suggestive approach to the topic ''Health" was used 
last year by F. W. Carrier, prmcipal of the Wilmington (Mass.) High 
School. 

This class had just finished a course in hygiene. From their text- 
book in this subject they were asked to select nine of the most impor- 
tant rules of hygiene and to discuss the following question regarding 
each rule, "Can I observe this rule without the aid of society?" 
The class spent several days on this discussion, m order to secure the 
social point of view by their own reasoning, simply guided by the 
teacher. 

1. "Breathe deeply and freely of pure air." The class discovered that we some- 
times can not observe this rule, even when we keep our ov\-n premises hygienic, because 
our neighbor's barnyard, pigpen, or outhouse may contaminate the air that we breathe; 
that the individual, when unaided by society, is unable to keep the air pure in shops, 
streets, schools, churches, theaters, and cars; and that, therefore, sanitary regulations 
are necessaiy. 

2. "Drink freely of pure water." The water supply of one family or of an entire 
community may be contaminated by the sewage of another family or community, 
and there must, therefore, be authority not only over different families in the same 
community, but also over different communities. 

20 



TREATMENT OF THE ELEMENTS OF WELFARE. 21 

3. "Eat moderately of a wholesome, well-cooked, and well-balanced diet." This 
rule can not be observed unless society makes and enforces laws concerning the con- 
dition of food offered for sale and of slaughterhouses and cold storage. 

4. "Exercise daily the important groups of muscles." Hence the necessity for 
establishing gymnasiums, playgrounds, and athletic fields, and for leisure time in 
which to use them. 

5. "Keep the body and its surroundings clean." It is Impossible to keep the body 
clean without bathing facilities. The cleanliness of surroundings is affected by the 
condition of the streets and by the disposal of waste and refuse from certain industries. 

6. "Do not expose yourself to contagious diseases." The individual is powerless 
to protect himself from diphtheria, typhoid fever, or tuberculosis. A polluted water 
supply may spread a disease through an entire community; sewage-polluted oysters 
or infected milk may spread typhoid fever to hundreds of consumers; and one person 
suffering from an infectious disease may endanger a whole community. 

7. "Abstain from the unnecessary use of drugs." Many persons do not know what 
drugs are harmful, and some of those who know do not abstain therefrom. Therefore, 
there must be laws regulating the manufacture of alcoholic drinks, tobacco, morphine, 
patent medicines, and headache powders. 

8. "Observe regular periods of re^t." Labor unions determine for their members 
the number of hours in a day's work. A Massachusetts law limits a week's work for 
a woman to 54 hoxirs. Tower men can be on duty only 8 hours, except in emergencies. 
Firemen in some places shift three times a day. Child-labor laws limit the hours of 
employment for minors. A man should have one day in seven for rest. Society must 
make it possible for eveiyone to secure enough rest and sleep so that he may live a 
healthy life and render full service to the community. 

9. "Do not practice any activity harmful to the body." It is necessary in order 
that this rule may be observed to provide schools furnished with adjustable seats, 
properly lighted, and supplied with well-printed textbooks; to abolish child labor: to 
limit the kinds of employment for women; to restrict hours of labor in certain occupa- 
tions; and to abolish harmful occupations that are not necessary to the welfare of 
society, like the manufacture of white-phosphorus matches. ^ 

At first the pupils seemed startled to see that society has the right 
to compel a man to keep his own premises clean. To many it was a 
revelation that a man has no right to sell mi wholesome food, adulter- 
ated butter, or unhygienic milk, and that society has a right to stop 
such sale. One of the boys said: "I always thought those things — - 
quarantme, pure-food laws, etc. — were unfair, but I see that thoy are 
not." Another boy was of the opmion that if a man wanted to keep 
a pigpen near his neighbor's back door, provided the pig was on his 
own land, he ought to have the privilege, but the class were able by 
this time to make short work of his argument. When we consider 
that many pupils had to secure a point of view different from that 
which they were accustomed to entertain, and in many cases different 
from that reflected in daily conversations at home and on the street, 
we readily see that several lessons devoted to this discussion were 
none too many. The pupils were interested ; they thought tlie lessons 
worth while, and they were ready to study in detail the health agen- 
cies existing in the community and the specific duties of the citizen 
in cooperatmg with each of these agencies. 



22 TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 

Means hy ivMcli the community provides for health, — If the class 
begins with the ventilation of the school building, the following 
questions may suggest a plan of procedure : 

Is this classroom well ventilated? How do you know? What effect does it have 
upon you and your work if the ventilation is defective? 

If the law compels school attendance, why should it also compel good ventilation? 
Why is it not good business to spend public money on instruction and to neglect 
ventilation? 

Find out the standards of ventilation prescribed by law or those recognized as 
satisfactory by competent authorities. Compare the ventilation of your building 
with these standards. Examine and explain the system of ventilation in your school. 

When was the present system of ventilation put in tliis building? What was the 
method of ventilation before? If the present system is a good one, to whose activity 
and foresight is this due, and what did it cost? If a bad one, what steps should be 
taken to replace it, who should take these steps, and how much would a proper 
system cost? 

"W^io is responsible for the inspection of ventilation in the school? How can the 
citizen i)roceed to secure an investigation of a school when he tliinks such investigation 
is necessary? 

Are there any ways in which pupils may cooperate in keeping the ventilation in 
good working order? If a pupil thinks the system is defective, what ought he to do 
about it? 

The class may in like manner study the ventilation of other public 
buildings, theaters, cars, and factories. 

Problems in community civics are likely to have much in common 
with problems in general science and biology. The emphasis, how- 
ever, is different, as science deals primarily with the material aspects, 
while community civics deals primarily with the social aspects. 

The agencies in the following list are grouped in accordance with 
the approach akeady described. The number of these agencies to 
be investigated in detail will depend upon the time available and the 
relative importance of this topic, health, in this community and for 
this class. The same spirit should prevail in the treatment of each 
as in the suggested study of ventilation. 

LIST OF AGENCIES. 

For pure air: 

Ventilation of buildings. 

Suppression of smoke and gas nuisance. 

Tenement house laws and inspection. 

Cleanliness of outbuildings. 
For pure water: 

Wells and water system. 

Stream protection and filtration. 

Sewage disposal. 
For pure food: 

School lunckes. 

Pure food and drug laws. 

Insi>ection of markets and dairies. 

Inspection of slaughterhouses. 

Inspection of cold storage. 



TEEATMENT OF THE ELEMENTS OF WELFARE. 23 

For exercise: 

Gymnasiuins. 

Playgrounds and athletic fields. 
For cleanliness: 

Disposal of household waste. 

Street cleaning. 

Public baths. 
To avoid contagion: 

Medical inspection of schoola. 

School nurses. 

Vaccination. 

Quarantine — local, State, national. 

Insect extermination. 
To restrict the use of drugs: 

Temperance societies. 

Regulation of sale and manufacture of alcohol and tobacco. 
To regulate working hours and conditions: 

Properly equipped schools (desks, lighting). 

Child-labor legislation and inspection (age, hours, work certificates, kinds of 
employment) . 

Factory legislation and inspection (hours, lunch periods, sanitation, safety 
devices, seats for women employees, kinds of employment). 

Consumers' leagues. 

Child-labor associations. 
Agencies for miscellaneous purposes: 

Ambulance service. 

Hospitals and dispensaries. 

Vital statistics. 

Baby-saving campaigns. 

Responsibility of the citizen. — It would be well for the teacher to 
recall the discussion of recognition of responsibility and of the appli- 
cation of principles to conduct in Part I, pages 16-19. Throughout 
the discussion of the topic the aim should be to present its community 
relations in such a way as to stimulate the pupil's sense of responsi- 
bility for the health of the community as a whole. In connection 
with the study of pure water supply, for example, such questions as 
the following may be suggestive: 

If you suspect that your water supply may be polluted, how will you proceed to 
verify your suspicions? 

If you find that it is polluted, what should you do about it? \Vliat should your 
father do about it? Under what conditions should complaint be entered? Wlio 
should enter it? Before whom should it be laid, and by what method? 

If your community needs a new water system, how may a citizen proceed to arouse 
public opinion in the matter? 

How can a mayor be held accountable for the efficiency of a water commissioner 
whom he appoints? 

What kind of reports should a water commissioner render, and whose business is it 
to read them? Why? 

It may be profitable to have the class collect, from such magazines 
as The American City, instances of participation by boys and girls 
in activities to promote the health of communities. These instances 
97151°— 15 4 



24 TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 

may be tabulated to show the scope of such activities, and discussed 
and criticized from the point of view of organization, management, 
cooperation, judgment, results, etc. 

Each member of the class may also write a statement of the ways 
in which he has cooperated, or may cooperate, with the various social 
agencies studied. Mr. Carrier obtained by this method some state- 
ments that, by their spontaneity, indicated a personal appHcation of 
the lesson, as when one pupil wrote, " I will be cheerfully quarantined." 

TOPIC n.— PROTECTION OF LIFE AND PROPERTY. 

Approach to the topic. — One way to approach this topic is through a 
discussion of some dramatic accident that has occurred in the vicinity, 
or that has gained prominence through the newspapers, such as the 
burning of a part of Salem, Mass., the shirt-waist factory fire in New 
York City, or the recent floods in Ohio and Indiana; and then to 
exhibit statistics (which the pupils themselves may gather) to show 
that accidents less dramatic, but of common occurrence, result in the 
aggregate in more terrible loss of life and greater destruction of 
property. Instances may be found in the annual loss from fire, the 
railroad or mining accidents of the past year, injuries occurring in 
the ordinary course of traffic in the streets of a large city, or the loss 
of life and limb on the Fourth of July. 

Compare the attitude of different people toward the removal of 
causes of accidents; for example, the attitude of the Chinese toward 
the inundation of their rivers as compared with that of the people 
along the Mississippi. Why the difference ? (Note, however, the 
unnecessary loss of life and property in this country from periodic 
floods)] Compare the frequency of railroad accidents in this country 
with that in England or Germany. 

Note the growing movement in behalf of protection of life and 
property in this country as illustrated by the "safety-first" move- 
ment. What has brought about the changed attitude ? Give illus- 
trations from your own community. 

Means hy which the community protects life and property. — The 
study of means adopted to protect life and property should commence 
with conditions that axe very near to the pupils. In case the investi- 
gation starts with fire prevention in the home, information on such 
lines as the following may be sought: 

Of what material is your house built? Is there need for fire escapes and are such 
provided? Is there any danger of fire from stoves of furnaces in your house? Is 
gasoline or any other explosive kept in the house, and if so, what care is taken of it? 
Is there any danger from lighted matches? If you have electricity, how is the current 
insulated? In case a fire broke out what steps should you take? Where is the near- 
est fire-alarm box? How would j-ou send an alarm? Is the waver supply adequate 
to extinguish a fire? With reference to how many of these poin s are thei'e laws in 
your community? 



TREATMENT OF THE ELEMENTS OF WELFARE. 25 

It is better, however, instead of asking the pupils detailed, leading 
questions such as those above, to seek to draw them out as to the 
sources of danger to Hfe and property in their own homes. Let them 
mention materials of construction, fire escapes, matches, etc. From 
their miscellaneous Hst, brought out by free and general discussion, a 
corrected and classified list may be compiled and placed on the black- 
board in good order as a basis for further discussion. This will stimu- 
late initiative and give the pupils practice in organizing their own 
knowledge. 

A similar plan may be followed with regard to the provisions for 
safety in the school building and elsewhere. 

Some of the agencies for the protection of life and property follow : 

LIST OF AGENCIES. 

For the prevention of accidents — 

In houses, tenements, schools, public buildings. 

Fire exits, fire escapes, building laws and inspection. 
In the street : 

Traffic regulations and traffic squad. 

Underground wires. 

Street lighting. 
In transportation: 

Safety regulations and devices on railroads, steamships, electric caiis, and 
automobiles. 

Coast survey; lighthouses and buoys; life-saving stations. 
In industry: 

Safety devices in mines, quarries, and factories. 

Regulation and inspection of fire escapes, elevators, boilers. 

For protection against fire — 

Insurance. 
Police. 

Courts (civil and criminal). 
Legal aid societies. 
Militia. 

State constabulaiy. 
Army. 
Navy. 
Patents and copyrights. 



For the prevention of floode 

Levees. 

Preservation of forests. 

Flood reservoirs. 
For protection against fire — 

Water supply . 

Fire department. 

Forest rangers. 

Building regulations. 

Fire prevention movement. 



Responsibility of the citizen. — ^Even a cursory analysis of the causes 
of the fires occurring annually in a community, together with an 
exhibit of the cost to the community, will of itself suggest the heavy 
responsibility resting on each citizen for the prevention of fire. A 
study of the causes of accidents on the street will impress the same 
idea. 

Habits of destruction and vandalism, when they prevail among 
boys, are not always easy to overcome. But more can be done to 
this end by a vivid demonstration of the social consequences of such 
practices through an array of concrete situations which will of tliem- 



26 TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 

selves appeal to self-interest, to the spirit of the "square deal," and 
to a proud sense of personal responsibility, than by preachment. 

Pupils should be taught the proper use of safety devices and the 
precautions that they should take in order to protect both them- 
selves and their feUow citizens. In one school in a large city a model 
of a street-car platform was placed in the gymnasium and the pupils 
were trained to get off the car facing forward. The importance of 
fire driUs in the schools should be thoroughly discussed, and these 
drills held often enough to secure rapid and orderly emptying of the 
building. Similarly the class should discuss the proper procedure 
in case of a fu*e in any other building, such as a theater. Probably 
in every town and city there are devices, such as fire-alarm boxes, 
that the local authorities would gladly have pupils trained to use 
correctly. Quite Hkely the fire department would lend a sample 
box to the school, so that each pupil could learn the proper method 
of turning in an alarm. 

The class may discuss the steps that should be taken by the citizen 
to secure the installation of safety devices either in his own dwelling 
or in public buildings or in cars and factories. 

TOPIC m.— RECREATION. 

Approach to topic. — ^The study of each topic should be related as 
far as possible to the work that has preceded. Under "Health" and 
"Protection of life" the community arrangements for the physical 
well-being of the citizen have been studied. To secure the highest 
degree of efficiency on the part of the individual and of the com- 
munity, there is a physical necessity for recreation as well as for rest. 

It is usually well, however, to begin the study of a topic by means 
of concrete illustrations within the observation of the pupils. Thus, 
the study of recreation may be begun by having the pupils mention 
such forms and means of recreation as occur to them, in the home, 
in the school, in the community at large. On the basis of such a 
list, the class may work out a definition of recreation and a statement 
of its purposes. No matter if the preliminary definition is crude, it 
can be completed and perfected in the light of further observation 
and discussion. 

Observation and discussion should disclose the fact that mere cessa- 
tion from "work" is not necessarily recreation. The difference 
between recreation and dissipation should be emphasized. It should 
be shown that recreation involves the social and intellectual interests, 
as well as mere physical enjoyment and recuperation. Recreation 
may at times consist in mere change of occupation. Why? 

Recreation depends upon the possession of leisure, the existence of 
adequate facilities, and knowledge of how to use the leisure and the 
facilities. These three conditions suggest profitable lines of inquiry 
in your own community 



TREATMENT OF THE ELEMENTS OF WELFARE. 



27 



How the community 'provides for recreation. — To what extent are 
there people in your community who have not sufficient leisui*e for 
recreation? How is it in the case of women? Of children? Wliat 
causes deprive people of leisure in your community? Other things 
being equal, does rural or city life afford greater leisure? Is there 
any movement in your community (or State) looking to the increase 
of leisure of working men and women ? 

Are the facilities for recreation adequate in your community? 
Make as complete a list as possible of the recreation facilities in your 
community, for men; for women; for children. Classify them 
according to their kind. Are the facilities that exist equally dis- 
tributed in all parts of the community and among all classes of the 
population ? Make a map (if in a city) showing distribution of play- 
grounds, parks, baths. Would you consider a library a means of 
recreation? A saloon? Wliy? Are facilities for recreation more 
abundant in a city or in a rural community? Look up the question 
of need for recreation facilities in a farming community. What 
obligation is there upon a community to provide recreation facilities 
for its citizens? Is your community meeting its obligation 
satisfactorily? 

Do you know people who do not know how to play ? Is it a func- 
tion of the school to teach how to play? Compare the advantages 
of supervised play with unsupervised. How much and what kind 
of supervision over recreation is there in your community? Discuss 
the censorship of moving pictures; the regulation of dance balls. 
Wliat agencies provide supervision for different kinds of recreation 
in your community? To what extent is supervised recreation pro- 
vided in factories and business houses? Discuss the need and 
methods of control of athletics and social events in a high school. 

Following is a partial list of recreational agencies that may be 
discussed : 

LIST OF AGENCIES. 



School recess. 

Playgrounds and athletic fields. 

Athletic associations. 

Gymnasiums and bowling alleys. 

Extended use of schoolhouses. 

Public baths. 

Recreation piers. 

Dance halls. 

Concerts. 

Theaters and moving pictures. 

Circuses. 



Botanical and zoological gardens. 

Libraries. 

Museums and art galleries. 

Summer camps. 

Fish and game protection. 

National parks. 

Clubs and associations: 

Boy Scouts. 

Camp Fire Girls. 

Y.M.C.A. 

Social settlements. 



Responsibility of the citizen. — Observation, inquiry and discussion 
along the lines suggested in the foregoing paragraphs should impress 
pupils with the obligation to provide for adequate, wholesome 
recreation, both from the standpoint of self-interest and of community 



28 TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVIOS. 

welfare. Most high-school pupils need little stimulation to play, 
though there are numerous exceptions; but they need to cultivate 
judgment in the choice of recreation and to develop thoughtfulness 
regarding the comfort and convenience of others who are not partici- 
pating in the game. 

Athletics and other forms of school recreation afford abundant 
opportunity for the practice of civic virtues. Consideration for 
others, habits of cooperation, regard for the rules of the game are 
duties which may be cultivated in recreational activities whether on 
the athletic field or in social gatherings. 

It is pertinent, in these days of strenuous business activity, to 
stress the duty of providing against personal physical breakdown 
and social inefficiency, by due regard for recreational needs after enter- 
ing business. Abundant opportunity is presented throughout the 
discussion to emphasize the responsibility of the community for 
ample f aciUties for regulated recreation, and of the citizen to cooperate 
with private and pubHc agencies in providing for them. The duty 
of the employer to his employees in this respect should also be em- 
phasized. 

TOPIC IV.— EDUCATION. 

Aj)proacJi to tlie topic. — It is not always easy for the pupil to see the 
value of the education the school is giving him. This may be due, 
in part, to his own lack of understanding and foresight; in part, to a 
real failure of the school to meet the needs of the pupil. Let the class 
(and the teacher) face these two possibilities frankly, with a view to 
getting light on what should be expected from the school, and how 
far the school is fulfiUmg or failing to fulfill its obligations. 

Whether the school clearly meets the needs of the pupil or not, the 
value of some kind and some amount of education (acquiring ex- 
perience and skill and appreciation) will be readily acknowledged by 
the pupil. A great deal of this education is acquired directly by 
experience in the school of life itself. One question to be answered 
is. How early does it pay to enter this school of life to finish one's 
education by actual experience ? There was a time when education 
was acquired almost wholly in this way, except for what the family 
itself could give or afford to buy. With the growing complexity 
of life, it has become necessary to supplement the efforts of the 
individual and of the family by providing educational facihties for a 
longer period of trainmg, and this training has been made available 
to practically everyone through the system of public elementary and 
secondary schools. That the communit}^ believes this is worth while 
is evidenced by the large sum of money expended every year for the 
purpose. How much in your town or city? In your State? How 
much does your high school cost the community annually for each 



TEEATMENT OF THE ELEMENTS OF WELFARE. 29 

pupil in attendance'? How does this compare with the cost of the 
elementary schools? Is the difference justifiable? Wliy? 

If your education is worth while, either from your standpoint or 
that of the community, it ought to accomplish at least the following 
things: 

1. It ought to help you to become self-supporting and to provide for those dependent 
upon you. This would include — 

a. Help in discovering the vocation for which you are best adapted. 

b. Help in preparation for that vocation. 

2. From the standpoint of the community it ought to increase your efficiency as a 
contributor to the economic prosperity of the community, and thereby also contribute 
to your own self-respect. 

3. It ought to increase your capacity for enjoyment of your life work and for enjoy- 
ment and wise use of leisure. 

4. It ought to stimulate your desire, and develop your ability, to participate wisely 
in the affairs of your community — intellectual, social, philanthropic, political, etc. 

5. It ought to cultivate your appreciation of life in all its aspects. 

Each of the above points may be discussed in greater or less deta'l 
to bring out why, from the standpoint of the pupil and from that of 
the community, public education should provide for it. 

How the community jyrovides for education. — A good place to begin 
a study of what the community is actually doing for the education of 
its citizens is with the high school (if it is a high-school class that is 
making the study; if it is an eighth-grade class, the beginning might 
better be with the elementary school). The following questions are 
only suggestive, and by no means exhaust the various aspects of the 
subject: 

Make a table or chart showing the various kinds of work and activities of your high 
school, and show how they contribute to the ends of education as stated above (include 
athletics, debating societies, the school paper, and other activities). 

Course of study. — What changes have been made in your high -school course of study 
in the last 10 years? What has been the purpose of these changes? What further 
changes are in prospect? Do other high schools in your city and high schools in other 
cities maintain courses not found in your school? If so, to what extent should they 
be introduced in your school? Why? Do you yourself feel that the studies you are 
taking have a direct value to you? What changes would you suggest in the content 
and methods of teaching the studies you are taking to make them more useful to you? 
"V^Tiat subjects would you drop altogether, and why? 

Administration. — Analyze and describe the ad minis traiion of your school. Explain 
the function and the responsibility of teachers, princii)al, superintendent, school 
board, or committee. Do you have any responsibility for the administration or con- 
duct of the school? Explain. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of i)upil par- 
ticipation in school government. What is the relation between the school authorities 
and the city or town or county government? Between the school authorities and the 
State government? Why these relations? 

School attendance. — Between what ages is school attendance compulsory in your 
State? How does this compare with other States? What steps must be taken to 
obtain working papers, schooling, and age certificates? What restrictions, if any, 



30 TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 

are i)lacecl upon the kinds of employment that may be secured by minors? Explain 
the administration of the tniancy laws. "What proportion of elementary pupils enter 
high school in your community? Wliat proportion of those who enter high school 
complete the course? A\'Tiat proportion of pupils leave the elementary school l>efore 
completing all eight grades? Wliat caiiees are assigned for this elimination of i)upil3 
at various grades? ^\^lat steps, if any, are being taken in your community to prevent 
retardation and elimination? 

Racial composition of the school. — A chart may be made showing places of birth 
of the members of the class, and of their parents and grandparents. The aim should 
be to conserve a proper pride in racial heritage while emphasizing the process of Amer- 
icanization. Tact must be exercised to avoid offense. The democratizing influence 
of the public school should be emphasized. The opportunity is great to cultivate 
wholesome sympathy among the racial elements represented. It may be shown that 
the American ideal of democracy is the outgrowth of the labors and aspirations of the 
people in nations other than our own, and that, therefore, the foreigner comes from 
countries which have contri]:)uted to the ideal for which we ourselves are striving. 

Cost of the school. — How much was expended for your high school last year? How 
much of this was for instruction? For what other purpose was money spent? 'WTiat 
is the value of your school building and grounds? From what sources is this money 
derived? How is it raised? 

In the same spirit and by similar methods such educational agen- 
cies as the following may be taken up for discussion so far as tmie 
and circumstances warrant: 

LIST OF AGENCIES, 

1. Those offering education directly: 

Kindergartens. 

Elementary schools (day, evening, summer, special). 

High schools (day, evening, summer, special). 

Private and cooperative schools. 

Higher institutions (different kinds and purposes of each). 

Correspondence schools (use and limitations). 

Summer Chautauquas. 

Winter reading circles. 

Schools for defectives (blind, deaf, etc.). 

Corporation schools. 

Classes for immigrants. 

Young Men's Christian Association. 

Social settlements. 

Civic clubs. 

Literary and debating clubs. 

Public lectures and sermons. 

Libraries. 

Museums and art galleries. 

Theaters and moving pictures. 

Newspapers and periodicals. 

2. Those fostering other educational agencies: 

Public education associations. 
Home and school associations. 
The Foundations (Sage, General Education Board, Carnegie Foundation for 

the Advancement of Teaching). 
United States Bureau of Education. 



TEEATMENT OF THE ELEMENTS OF WELFAEE. 31 

Responsibility of the citizen. — The pupil should be impressed with 
the fact that in going to school he is participating in the real life of 
the community, that he is doing the thing which the community 
expects him to do. Is he doing his part well ? Teachers and school 
authorities are official representatives of the community, a part of 
the local and State governments. Cooperation with them is public 
service, as are diligence and regularity of attendance. Responsibility 
for the progress of the other members of the class should be empha- 
sized, as also for the public property represented in school equip- 
ment. 

The pupil also has a civic responsibility for the future, for which 
his education is mtended to fit him. Whether his education does 
prepare him for future responsibility depends in part upon the 
efficiency of the school, but also in large measure upon the diligence 
and attitude of the pupil himself. 

It should be shown that, while school authorities have direct 
responsibility for the schools, a community wiU have the kind of 
schools that it really wants, and that a responsibility rests on the 
citizens themselves to deal with the subject intelligently and to 
submit willingly to the necessary taxation for adequate educational 
facilities. The difference in kind of responsibility resting upon school 
authorities and citizens should be emphasized. (See Part I, p. 16.) 

TOPIC v.— CIVIC BEAUTY. 

Approach to the topic. — The appearance of a community is usually 
the first thing to attract the attention of a stranger. Are you proud 
of your community in this respect? What are some of the things 
that you would select to show a visitor in jour community ? What 
are some of the things that you would not want him to see ? Why ? 
What difference does it make whether your community is beautiful 
or not? For example, what effect do appearances have upon the 
value of i3roperty ? Give examples in your own community. Why 
should the citizen cooperate with government and with voluntary 
agencies to make the community beautiful ? What besides appear- 
ances contribute to the beauty of a community ? 

If there happens to be under way in your commmiity some import- 
ant improvement, such as the construction of a system of parks or 
boulevards, or a town-planning movement, this may afford a natural 
avenue of approach to the general subject of civic beauty. In this 
case the relation between such factors in civic beauty as parks or 
boulevards and public health, public recreation and public conven- 
ience, should be established. 

How the community provides for civic heauty. — Positive or negative 
material for the study of civic beauty and its importance is always 
at hand in abundance. It is popular with pupils and comparatively 



32 



TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 



easy to handle. As in the case of other topics, the study should be 
related as closely as possible to the pupils' interest, proceeding from 
matters familiar to thorn to matters less familiar. When the pupils 
live in congested city districts where lawns, gardens, and shade 
trees are rare, it is hardly wise to dwell upon home beautifying in 
these respects to the same extent as m other sections of the city. 
For such pupils a discussion of clean and tidy area ways and alleys 
would be more pertinent. The appearance of school building and 
grounds, of streets, and of parks, however, is of common interest to all. 
The following is a list of topics rather than of agencies; but their 
study of course involves a consideration of corresponding agencies. 
Under each, therefore, inquire as to who has been given, or has 
assumed, responsibility, and how the work is done. 



LIST OP AGENCIES. 



Beauty in the home: 

Appearance of dwellings (paint, re- 
pairs, window boxes, etc.)- 
Care of lawns, gardens, trees. 
Beauty in the school: 
Interior decoration. 
School architecture. 
Improvement of grounds. 
School gardening. 
Beauty in the street: 
The street plan. 
Construction and repair. 
Cleanliness. 
Provision for rubbish. 
Unsightly objects — 

Telephone and electric light 

poles. 
Bill boards. 
Care and preservation of trees. 
Noise. 

Lighting at night. 
Parks, parkways and boulevards, water 
fronts. 



Architecture: 

Public buildings. 

Business and office buildings. 

Residential. 
Art: 

Monuments and statues. 

Bridges. 

Galleries. 
City or town planning: 

Street plan. 

Grouping of public buildings. 

Industrial and residential sections. 

Regulation of height of buildings. 
Preservation of natural beauty: 

Local, State, National. 
Miscellaneous : 

Smoke abatement. 

Vacant lots. 

Alleys. 

Clean-up days. 

Care of public buildings. 

MutUation of public property. 



Responsibility of the citizen. — There is no phase of community life 
in which it is so easy to see the responsibihty of the citizen as in that 
which relates to beauty, and there is no other phase which offers such 
abundant opportunity to the young citizen to participate in civic 
activities. The beauty of the community as a whole depends in 
large measure upon the care which the individual householder and 
his family take with regard to the appearance of their own premises 
and the care which every individual, young or old, takes not to 
htter the streets and parks vdth j^apers and other refuse, to deface 
walls and fences, to injure plants and trees, to destroy birds. Chil- 



TEEATMENT OF THE ELEMENTS OF WELFARE. 33 

dren have been a large factor in many communities in the work of 
school and home gardening and in neighborhood bcautification of 
various kinds. Besides personal conduct in such matters, there is 
always the opportunity to help form pubhc opinion by personal effort 
and by cooperation with voluntary agencies. 

TOPIC VI.— WEALTH. 

Approach to the topic. — In dealing with this topic it may be neces- 
sary to remind oneself that this is a course in ''community civics" 
and not one in economics. In order to maintain this point of view 
it may be well for the teacher to recall the definitions of the "good 
citizen" and of " community civics " given on pages 1 and 11, Part I. 
The citizen, however, must be a user, and usually a producer, of 
wealth. The use and production of wealth have their civic relations 
and it is some of these that this section is intended to point out. 

It wiU probably be necessary to explain to pupils that the word 
"wealth" is not used in the sense of great riches, and still less as 
synonymous with money, but in its true meaning of all material things 
for which men are willing to work. A loaf of bread is wealth, as also 
a book, or a lead pencil, or a house and lot, or a plow. A technical 
discussion of wealth in aU its economic bearings is out of place in 
this course. 

The things most in evidence in a community, outside of the purely 
residential districts, are stores and office buildings, factories, trans- 
portation lines and facilities, and people hurr.ying to and fro, or at 
work in their offices or before machines or behind counters — aU going 
about their "business." If it is a rural community, there are the 
farms with all the activities involved in producing grain, or cotton, 
or live stock. Or it may be a mining community or one whose 
chief interest is in the activities that center about the forest. Every- 
one seems to be intent on "getting a living." 

If we pass from the "business center" of a city to the residential 
districts, there we see the symbol of the "hving" for which all this 
work is going on — the home. It represents, first of all, shelter and 
food; but in addition it represents the primary means of education 
(the training of children), of health protection, of esthetic enjoyment 
(in books, music, home bcautification), of recreation, and of social life. 
It represents the necessities of life and such comforts and luxuries 
as the family may by its work provide for. 

The getting of a living is of fundamental importance to everyone. 
It should be made clear to the pupil that the money a worker receives 
for his work is only a measure of his "living" or of the value of his 
services, and that the real "living" that he receives in return for his 
work is the more or less complete enjoyment of the "elements of 
welfare" — protection of health, life, and property, education, recre- 



S4 TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 

ation, etc. Wealth is merely the material means by which the 
real elements of welfare are secured. The activities involved in the 
production and use of wealth are of vital importance to every com- 
munity, local or national. A very large part of the work of govern- 
ment is for the regulation of these activities and for the protection 
of the citizen in his property rights. The wealth-getting and wealth- 
using activities also impose heavy responsibilities upon the citizen. 

Means hy which the community provides for the production ami use 
of wealth. — The following paragraphs suggest a few of the important 
aspects of the subject that may be investigated with profit. 

1. The dependence of the citizen upon others for the wealth he uses. — 
The interdependence of individuals is nowhere so clearly shown as in 
the wealth-getting and wealth-using activities of- a community, 
whether the community be local, national, or world-wide. This 
world-wide interdependence is vividly shown by the effects of the 
European war. 

Make a list of the workers engaged in providing you with bread, from the raising of 
the grain to the placing of the bread upon the table. Do the same for the salt with 
which you season your food, and the knife and fork with wliich you eat it; for the 
coat or dress which you wear; for the furnitiu'e in your home or the house in which 
you live; for the bboks that you use in school. Name as many groups of workers as pos- 
sible who have contributed to the protection of your health; to providing you with 
a concert or a theatrical performance. In these studies do not forget such ramifica- 
tions of industry as transportation, the engineers who build bridges, the scientists 
who discover natural laws. 

A concrete study of .this kind will give the pupil a vivid picture of 
the multiplicity of occupations in their relations to each other. But 
the chief point of emphasis at this time is the magnitude and variety 
of service by which a living is provided for the humblest citizen in 
return for his individual effort. 

Conversely, there is the implied obligation of each individual to 
contribute effectively to the extent of his abihty to the living of all 
these who serve him. Each worker is primarily concerned with what 
he gets for his work; the community is especially concerned about 
what he gives. All this implies the necessity for cooperation. 

2. Cooperation and division of labor. — Observe how the occupations of your house- 
hold are distributed among the members of the family. Study a factory in your com- 
munity (perhaps one in which a member of your family is employed) to discover 
how the work of producing a given article is divided among the various groups of 
workmen. Wliat is the purpose of this "division of labor"? Show how each is 
dependent upon all the others. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of such 
division of labor, from the point of view of the workman and from that of the employer. 
What is the work of the "manager," or "superintendent," or "boss"? Why is he 
necessary? Wliat sliould be the relations between the manager and the workmen? 
Where does the money come from with which to build the plant, provide the ma- 
chinery, and pay wages? Explain "capital." Show the interdependence of those 



TREATMENT OF THE ELEMENTS OF WELFARE. 35 

who furnish the capital and those who furnish the labor. "The mutual object of 
both is to produce the best possible article at the lowest possible price, in order to 
place it within reach of the greatest possible number of piirchasers." (Note the 
obligation of both to regard the rights of the user of the article.) 

Show how the factory just studied is dependent upon other industries and occupa- 
tions in yoiu- own community; iipon industries and occupations in other parts of the 
country or of the world. 

Investigate the communicating system in a large factory or store and show its 
importance as a means of securing cooperation. From the same point of view, discuss 
the means of commimication and transportation in the community and in the nation 
and in the world. 

3. Effects of industrial development tipon community life. — Starting with the large 
degree of self-dependence exisxing in a pioneer family or community, show how the 
differentiation of occupations has taken place. The simpler facts of the "iadustrial 
revolution" may be brought out, to show the effects of the invention of machinery 
and the use of steam. Note especially the growth of the factory system and its effects 
upon the division of labor, the relations between labor and capital, and the growth 
of cities, with their complex problems of social life and government. 

4. Distribution of ivealth. — This subject, from the standpoint of economics, is too 
difficult for systematic treatment in this com-se. It may be shown, however, that 
where there are such interdependence and cooperation among those who fiu:nish the 
capital and those who furnish the labor, and among manufacturers, merchants, and 
transporters, there should be some equitable distribution of the proceeds of the com- 
bined service to the community. A simple explanation may be made (without too 
technical discussion) of wages, salaries, profits, dividends, interest, rent. This may 
involve a simple discussion, based on observation and published studies, of "a liAdng 
wage," "standards of living," "family budgets," etc. 

5. Saving. — A highly important topic. It may include such items as the following: 
Duty of providing for a "rainy day," and for the safety and comfort of the family. 
Economy in personal habits, in the household, and in business management. Methods 
and means of systematic saving. Saving by investment. Capital the result of 
saving. Economy thi'ough efficiency. ' Conservation of natural resoxu:ces. Economy 



m government. 



The topics here given are only suggestive of the hnes of inquiry 
and of the point of view and method, appropriate to this course. 
Many others are excluded for lack of space. But in a course in com- 
munity civics especial emphasis should be given to — 

6. What the Government does to regulate activities relating to the production and enjoy- 
ment of wealth. — Protection of property and property rights. The economic causes 
for the establishment of the Federal Government in 1787. 

The conservation of natural resources. 

Regiilation of commerce. State and interstate, and foreign. 

Providing money. The piurpose of money as a measure of value and a means vi 
exchange. 

Establishment and regulation of banks. Maintaining credit. 

Regulation of corporations and trusts. 

Departments of Agi-iculture, Commerce, and Labor. 

Regulation of labor of women and children. 

Regulation of conditions of work. 

Regulation of immigration. 

Standardization of weights and measures. 



36 TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS, 

The subject of taxation is left for treatment in connection with 
Topic XIII — How Governmental Agencies are Financed. 

The following are some of the agencies that might be considered: 

LIST OF AGENCIES. 

Industries and occupations of the commumty. Study them wdth reference to the 

wants they satisfy or the service they perform. 
Raw materials used in these industries. Sources. 
Natural resources of your immediate commimity. 
Conservation of natural resources. 
Light and power for industrial uses. 

Transportation facilities. (See also topic Transportation.) 
Capital: Nature of the capital used in — 
Farming in your locality. 
A large fiictory. 
A street railway. 
A mercantile establishment. 
A bank. 
Labor supply: Kind, abundance, permanence, reliability. 
Voluntary organizations aiding indi^stry: 
Labor unions. 

Boards of trade, chambers of commerce. 
Associations of manufacturers, merchants, professional men. 
Employment bureaus. 
For saving: 

Banks — school banks, savings banks, postal savings. 
Homestead and loan associations. 
Insurance — life, accident, fire. 
Opportunities for investment. 
Government control: 

Federal departments, bureaus, commissions, etc. 

Treasury, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Interior, Interstate Commerce 

Commission, etc. 
Consular system. 
Federal employment bureaus. 
Federal Reserve Board. 
Federal legislation (consider the legislation of the present or last session of Con- 
gress) . 
State bureaus and commissions. 

Agriculture, labor, highways, etc. 
Employment bureaus. 
State universities, agricultural and technical schools. 
State legislation: 

Wage laws, accident liability, labor of women and children, working condi- 
tions. 

Responsibility of the citizen. — The foregomg study should have 
impressed the pupil with the obligation resting upon every individual 
to bo self-sustaining by his own work and to participate efficiently in 
the economic work of the world. Through the study of this topic, 
together with that of education, he should be impressed with the 
necessity of choosing a vocation wisely and of adequate preparation 



TEEATMENT OF THE ELEMENTS OF WELFARE. 37 

for it. He may have been impressed also with inequahties and 
apparent injustices in the distribution of wealth, responsibihty for 
which is often hard to place. The very difficulty of the problem 
places upon the good citizen the obligation of trying to understand it 
and to contribute all m his power to the removal of causes of injustice. 

The business and industrial relations of the world are founded 
largely upon confidence. This is the basis of credit. Inefficiency 
or dishonesty in one employee or in one employer tends to undermme 
confidence in aU employees and employers. Give examples (e. g., 
careless engineers, absconding bankers, etc.). 

Opportunity for the highest possible type of good citizenship is 
more abundant in business than in almost any other department of 
life, partly because business occupies so large a portion of the citi- 
zen's attention and time, but also because real devotion to the 
public welfare so often demands large sacrifices of apparent personal 

TOPIC Vn.— COMMUNICATION. 

Approach to the topic. — The battle of New Orleans was fought after 
the conclusion of the War of 1812 because the news of peace had not 
reached Gen. Jackson. One cause of disunion among the American 
colonies and in the Confederation was the lack of means of communi- 
cation. 

A number of ships are steaming their way across the ocean, hun- 
dreds of miles apart, with different destinations, each unmindful of 
the others. A fire breaks out on one of them, and a wireless caU for 
help is sent out. Immediately all these widely separated vessels 
unite in one purpose and hasten to the support of their sister ship in 
danger. United sympathies, united purpose, united action depend 
on adequate means of communication. 

The manager of a great business keeps in touch with every detail 
and directs every department of his establishment, and even of 
branches in distant cities, without leaving his desk. The commanders 
of the armies of Europe are in personal touch with every portion of a 
battle front a hundred miles long. Business and social life have 
been revolutionized by the development of means of rapid communi- 
cation. 

Rapid communication enables a nation as extmisive as oui-s to 
concentrate its thought and purpose upon one thing at the same 
instant. Compare with China m this respect. The President pro- 
claims a statement of prmciplcs m defense of American 7-ights. The 
next morning the voice of the whole Nation is heard through the 
newspapers, pledging support to its Chief Executive. 

How out of touch one feels with the world, in these days, until the 
newspaper is brought in from the front step; and how much a part 



38 



TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 



of it, even in the mountain camp, when the mail arrives or if there is 
telephonic communication. 

With an appreciation of the significance of adequate means of 
communication in the life of the community stimulated by such 
examples, which might be multiplied indefinitely, attention may be 
directed to a concrete study of the actual means of communication 
in your community and in the nation as a whole. Their historical 
development makes an interesting story. Consider the extent to 
which Government control is exercised in each case, and whether it is 
the local. State, or National Government. An extreme case of such 
governmental control may be seen in the censorship of news in war 
time. 

Means hy which communication is maintained. — Make comparisons 
between present and past times with reference to means of communi- 
cation. Discuss the binding together of the component families of a 
community, of business houses, of the home with the place of busi- 
ness, of the home with the doctor, with the police, with the fire 
department, etc., by means of the telephone. Also how the farmer's 
life is no longer one of isolation, because of the telephone, the rural 
mail delivery, the automobile, and the electric line; how the city 
and the surrounding country are united into a single community by 
the same means. Note how lines of communication radiate from 
your community to every other community in the State and in the 
Nation, thus binding all into large communities. 



LIST OF AGENCIES. 



Lectures, sermons, Chautauquas, etc. 
Public discussion: 

Town meeting, county court days, 
fairs, etc. 

The comer grocery. 

Clubs. 

Social centers. 



Postal service. 
Telegraph. 
Ocean cables. 
Wireless. 
Telephone. 
The press: 

Newspapers. 

Magazines, periodicals, etc. 

Books, libraries, etc. 

Keports issued by Government and 
by voluntary organizations. 

Responsibility of the citizen. — Cooperation with postal authorities 
calls for care in addressing envelopes. 

A visit to a telephone exchange will impress the class with the 
demands for patience placed upon telephone operators and the 
necessity for corresponding courtesy and consideration in using the 
telephone. 

The process by which public opinion is formed may be discussed in 
some of its aspects with profit. The necessity for reliable information 
as a basis for judgment, and the harm done by the dissemiuation of 



TREATMENT OF THE ELEMENTS OF WELFARE. 39 

false or unverified ramors may lead to a discussion, of the responsi- 
bility of newspapers and newspaper reporters for the correct presen- 
tation of facts. 

TOPIC Vm.— TRANSPORTATION. 

A'p'proach to the topic. — Possibly a "good-roads movement," or an 
important street improvement, or an unusually bad condition of roads 
or streets exists in your community and would serve as a means of 
approach to the general subject. It is important to relate this topic 
"Transportation," as also that of "Communication," to the various 
elements of welfare that have been studied. Easy and rapid commu- 
nication and transportation increase certain dangers as well as bring 
new advantages; as, for example, in the spread of disease. 

It is easy to make vivid the importance of the city street and of 
the country highways. Practically all foodstuffs and raw materials 
must pass, at some stage, over country roads. Think, then, of the 
obstacles to life presented by bad roads. The subject may be ap- 
proached mterestingly by an account of the difficulties of travel and 
transportation m the early days of our national history, or in the 
days of settlement of the immediate locality in which the pupils live. 
{See McMaster's History of the People of the United States.) 

Means of trans'portation. — A study of the country highways or of 
the city streets may be made in the concrete. The following is a 
lesson plan on country roads, submitted by Prof. J. F. Smith, of 
Berea College, Kentucky. In this study numerous photographs were 
used, walks were taken over good and bad roads, and the pupils and 
teacher actually did a piece of road work. 

Study and report on condition of roads in the community. Draw a map of the 
community, indicating roads. Which are dirt roads, rocky roads, otlier kinds? Wliich 
are well graded, well crowned? Note side ditches; are they adequate? Note cul- 
verts and bridges. Estimate miles of road in the community, public and private. 

Study road-making material in the community. Note places where limestone is 
found; sandstone, slate, gravel. Are these materials accessible? 

Find out cost of hauling in the community. Consult wagoners and learn charges per 
hundred pounds for freight and farm produce. Can farmers afford to market produce 
at present cost of cartage? Find out how much freight is hauled into the community 
annually and compute amount paid for this. How long will wagon and set of harness 
last on the roads? How long on good roads? Difference in cost for 10 years. How 
much could people who buy supplies afford to spend on road upkeep each year in order 
to cut down freight rates? 

Compare cost of hauling here with cost in European countries where the best roads 
exist. What overtax do the people have to pay ? Note that this overtax is in the form 
of higher prices for household necessities and in smaller profits for farm produce. 

Road building. — Determine kind of road; the location; grades; liow grades affect 
the haul; the drainage — level and steep roads, side ditches, culverts, subdrainage, 
crown; actual construction — tools, funds, means employed. 

Road maintenance. — Kind of material to use; regular attention necessary; the loola. 

What good roads mean to a community. — The economic problem. How they ennance 
the value of land. Means of communication. Better social life. 



40 TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 

The history of the development of roads, canals, and railways in yoiir State and in 
the Nation, in its relation to the growth of community spirit and cooperation, will be 
fruitful. \\Tiat effect did the steam railway have upon the development of canals? 
Why? Show how the Panama Canal tends to unite our Nation more firmly. Study 
the problems of rapid transportation in cities and their relation to various phases of city 
life. Also the effects of the parcel post and of electric interurban lines on the welfare 
of farmers and city dwellers. Make a comprehensive study of the work of the Federal 
Government in promoting and safeguarding transportation. The Ship Purchase Bill 
and the Government ownership of railways and of street railway lines afford material 
for discussion and debate. 

LIST OF AGENCIES. 

Koads: 

Toll-road companies (now rare). 
Voluntary organizations to promote good roads. 
Government control — 
County and town. 
State (highway commissions, etc.). 
National — 

Department of Agriculture (Office of Public Roads). 
Post Office Department (rural delivery). 
Streets: 

City government, street department. 
Bridges: 

City, county, State, National. 
Natural waterways: Rivers, lakes, ocean. 
State bureaus and commissions. 
National — 

Department of Commerce (Coast Survey, Bureau of Navigation, Btl?e?i! di 

Lighthouses). 
Department of the Treasury (life-saving stations). 
Department of War (river and harbor improvement). 
Department of Agriculture (Weather Bureau). 
International Waterways Commission. 
Interstate Commerce Commission. 
Canals: 

Private companies. 
State control. 

National (Panama, Sault Ste. Marie, etc.). 
Railroads: 

Private corporations. 

State (railway or public-service commissions). 
National (Interstate Commerce Commission). 
Electric railways: 

Urban — surface, elevated, subway. 
Interurban — 

Private corporations. 

City governments (franchises, commissions). 
State governments (pubUc-ser\'ice commissions). 
National (Interstate Commerce Commission). 
Post Office Department (parcel post). 
Express companies. 

Local transfer companies, cab lines, jitney lines, etc. 
Steamship and other navigation lines. 



TEEATMENT OF THE ELEMENTS OF WELFAEE. 41 

Responsihility of the citizen. — -In many localities farmers are re- 
quired to work a certain number of days every year on the roads. If 
a county employs an expert engineer to construct and improve roads 
and the work is done by paid laborers, is the farmer reUeved of his 
responsibility as well as of the necessity of working on the roads ? In 
what ways, if any, is the citizen of a city responsible for the condition 
of the streets ? Consider the blocking of sidewalks with merchandise, 
etc.; the blocking of traffic in the streets, endangering pedestrians at 
street crossings, etc. If a citizen wants his street improved, what is 
the process by which it may be accomplished ? If a person is injured 
by falling into an open manhole in the sidewalk, or by falling on a 
defective sidewalk, or on the ice of an uncleaned sidewalk, who is 
responsible ? From whom may damages be collected, if at all ? 

TOPIC IX.— MIGRATION. 

Approach to the topic. — How many of the pupils in the class were 
born in the community where they are now going to school? How 
many of their parents have lived in one place all their lives ? How 
many times have they moved from one community to another ? What 
have been the reasons for moving from one place to another ? Migra- 
tion is no unusual thing. The motives that lead to it consist of the 
desire to secure one or other of the elements of weKare. The motives 
that bring foreigners to America are the same as those that have led 
to the settlement of the West, or the early colonization of America, or 
the movement of a family from one town to another, or from the 
country to the city; except that the desire for pohtical and religious 
freedom have played a more important part in immigration than in 
the ordinary movements from place to place within this country. 

The topic ''Migration" should be clearly related to the other topics 
that have preceded. It follows naturally after a consideration of 
"Transportation"; but in the causes that lead to it it is related defi- 
nitely to the elements of welfare that are the subject of this entire 
course. 

Problems/or study. — The direct study of this topic might begin with the growth of 
the community in which the pupil lives. Where did the original settlers come from? 
What was the chief purpose in founding the community? What were the means by 
which the settlers came? Note the growth of the community by decades. WTiat 
causes led to more rapid growth at some periods than at others? Is the community 
growing rapidly or steadily now? How much of the increase in population is due to 
the birth rate and how much to immigiation from other communities? What per 
cent of the population is from foreign countries? 

In some rural communities a decrease in population may be discovered. If so, to 
what is this due? Where have the emigrants gone? 

The broader problem of movements of population in different parts of the covmtry 
may be taken up. The movement from country to city. The movement from city 
to coimtry . The movement from one part of the coimtry to another. In what sections 
is the movement toward the cities most marked? Where is the movement toward the 



42 TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 

country more noticeable? What sections of the country seem to be decreasing in 
population? \^Qiat sections are growing most rapidly? 

Foreign immigration. — How many immigrants have come to this country during 
the last ten yeai's? From what countries have they come? Compare the sources of 
immigration now with those of 25 years ago. Where do these immigrants settle? 
Compare the number who settle in cities with the number who go to rural districts. 
What labor problems have developed in your own community from the influx of 
immigrants in large numbers? Study at some Itngth the immigrant problems of the 
country as a whole. What ia being done to distribute the immigrants in the sections 
of the country where they are most needed, and where they will probably be most 
successful? Diacuss the problem of assimilation. What is the opportunity of a 
public school in this respect, and how is the school meeting its opportunity? 

Study the regulation of immigration. What is the tendency with reference to 
further restriction? Discuss the facts relating to naturalization. What rights have 
aliens in this country? What methods have been adopted for the civic education 
of immigrants? Are these methods effective? 

The following are some of the agencies that have more or less in- 
fluence on migration: 

LIST OF AGENCIES. 

Federal Bureau of Immigration and inspection service. 

Federal Bureau of Naturalization. 

State departments of labor and employment bureaus. 

Steamship companies. 

Railroad companies. 

Corporation lal)or agents. 

Colonization societies. 

Immigration societies and other voluntary organizations in the interest of immigrants. 

Chambers of commerce and similar organizations that seek to induce industries to 

establish themselves in cities. 
WTieat growers' associations, agricultural exhibits, county and State fairs, etc. 

Responsibility of the citizen. — Where there are immigrant children 
or the children of immigrants in the classes, the responsibility of the 
school, including teachers and pupils, for the comfort and happiness 
and ''assimilation" of these new Americans is great and immediate. 
Every citizen has opportunities to show to those who have recently 
come to our country a kindness, consideration, and respect for their 
ways, that will make them well disposed toward us and our institu- 
tions. 

To help acquire a sympathetic understanding of the immigrant, 
it will be profitable for pupils, as well as teachers, to read such books 
as Mary Antin's "The Promised Land;" E. A. Steiner's ''On the 
Trail of the Immigrant" and "The Immigrant Tide;" and Jacob 
Riis' "The Making of an American." 

TOPIC X.— CHARITIES. 

Ajjproacli to the topic. — The term charities has come to include not 
only the care of those who are dependent, but also the efforts of society 
to reduce the causes of dependence. The class should see that every 



TEEATMENT OF THE ELEMENTS OF WELFARE. 



43 



person is supported by other people during at least a part of his 
lifetime, and that many people become dependent upon society 
through no fault of their own. This fundamental conception can 
be brought out clearly by means of a graph showing the comparative 
earnings and expenditures of an individual at various periods in 
life. Such a graph is shown below: 



o 



o 











y 














5X 














/ 














^ 


/ 














• i 

r>J__ 


.--"^ 








? 








^ 




\^ 





















— ' ' ^50 



















o 



\o 



18 ZO 



JO 



*o 



^o 



eo 



70 



80 



The figures on the base line represent the age of the individual. The figures on the two curves repre- 
sent dollars -per month. The lower curve represents the monthly cost of mamfcnanceoith^ mA\vi(!i\i2,\ 
(not including that of others dependent upon him). The upper curve represents his monthly 
earnings, which are supposed, in this case, to begin at the age of IS and to end 10 years before his 
death. 

From this graph it may be seen that an individual must earn 
during a part of his life a great deal more than he spends during that 
period if he is to be regarded as self-supporting during his entire life. 
Before he becomes self-supporting, it is evident that he must be 
supported by others. The question may now be raised as to who is 
called upon to support a child whose parents die, or an old person who 
has been unable to save during the prime of life and has no children 
Hving who can support him. How far does the legal responsibility 
of those who are next of kin extend ? Does the moral responsibility 
extend further than the legal responsibility? 

Note the relation of this subject to preceding topics in the course. 
Charities are necessitated by the inability or the failm*e of some 
individuals to secure for themselves the elements of welfare, either 
because of defects or inefficiency on their own part, or because of 
imperfections in social organization. 

Causes of dependency . — Obtain from the class all the causes of which 
they can think which make people dependent. After the class has 



44 TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 

worked upon the problem, these causes may be classified somewhat 
as follows: 

1. Lack of employment. 

2. Insufficient wages. 

3. Lack of skill. 

4. Sickuesa. 

5. Physical defects, such as blindness, deafness, etc. 

6. Accidents. 

7. Loss of bread-winner by death, desertion, imprisonment. 

8. Intemperance. 

9. Shiftlessness or the desire to avoid work. 
10. Mental defects. 

Means ly wTiicli the community seeks to make more people self- 
supporting, and to provide for the dependent. — The agencies relating 
to each of the causes of dependency mentioned above may be studied 
somewhat as follows : 

What is being done in your community to gather information regarding causes of 
unemployment? Study employment bureaus and their methods, public and private. 
■\Vliat kind of vocational guidance is provided by the schools and 'otherwise? 

What are the causes of insufficient wages? What constitutes a living wage? Discuss 
minimum wage laws. 

WTiat means are being adopted to overcome lack of skill? Investigate apprentice^ 
ship in your community. What is being done for vocational training in the schools? 
In factories.? 

What is being done to provide better conditions for work, from the standpoint of 
health? To provide better living conditions? What are the chief dangers to health 
in the industries of your community? 

Gather statistics regarding the extent of blindness, deafness, and other physical 
defects in your community. Have the schools of your community been inspected to 
discover the extent of such defects among school children? If so, to what extent are 
they prevalent? To what extent are such defects preventable? What steps have 
been taken to prevent them? 

What is being done in your community to prevent industrial accidents? Discuss, 
with illustrations where possible, safety devices in use in mines, in transportation, 
in factories. Look up the subject of workmen's compensation laws. 

What are the chief causes that bring breadwinners to prison? What is being done 
to remove these causes? ^Vbat is being done toward having a part of the earnings of 
prisoners go to the support of their families? 

To what extent is poverty due to intemperance? To what extent is intemiierance 
due to bad living conditions and overwork? To lack of proper recreation facilities? 

Discuss the question of indiscriminate almsgiving. 

What is being done in the schools for mentally backward children? 

Relief of dependents. — In the discussion of relief for those who are 
now dependent, distmction should be made between outdoor and 
indoor relief. How and to whom does your community give outdoor 
relief ? What institutions are there m your community for the care 
of dependents? What institutions are there m the State or Nation 
to which dependents from your community may be sent? The 
following questions are only suggestions: 



TREATMENT OF THE ELEMENTS OF WELFARE. 45 

Institutions for orphans. — To what extent do they provide a home atmosphere? 
What could be done to improve them in this respect? Do they offer education and 
training that will make the children independent when they leave? Do the children 
have adequate playgrounds? Are many of the children taken from tlie institutions 
to be adopted? Report on methods used in placing children in families. 

Hospitals. — Do people generally get better care at a hospital than at home? 'V^Tiy? 
What people should pay for their care at a hospital? Are there free beds? By whom 
and for whom established? Is it desirable for a small community to have a hospital 
of its own? Why? "VVTiy are ambulances necessary? Wliat provision is made for 
the immediate care of emergency cases? 

Homes for the aged.— Are there homes in your community for the care of the aged 
of certain denominations, professions, fraternal orders, or other special groups? A^^iat 
provision does the town make for old people who are not pro\dded for by any of these 
special institutions? Are some old people "boarded out" instead of being main- 
tained in an institution or "poor farm?" What are the relative advantages of the 
two methods? What names are now used instead of the term "poorhouse?" Why? 

Care of the crippled. — Do the railroads or other industries attempt to provide employ- 
ment for those who are crippled in their sendee? If not, do they give compensation 
to those who are crippled in their employ? Investigate the question of employer's 
liability. 

Those tvho ask for aid. — Do you ever have anyone come to your doer to ask for food 
or lodging? How can you find out whether such a person would be benefited by 
receiving the thing for which he asks? Have you a charity organization society or 
any other society whose business it is to investigate the needs of those who ask for aid? 
Make a report on the methods and purposes of a charity organization society. How 
may churches and individuals cooperate with the charity organization society? 
Do you have any street beggars in your community? Can you find out how much 
some of these people make by their lieggiug? If they ha^'O pencils or shoestrings for 
Bale, does this remove them from the beggar class? Is a person who has a first-class 
hurdy-gurdy a beggar? AVliy? 

Some of the important agencies imder this topic have been referred 
to above: 

LIST OP AGENCIES. 

Local and State institutions for dependents and defectives. 

City and State departments of charities. 

Charity organization societies. 

Voluntary charitable organizations. 

Churches. 

Fraternal organizations. 

Settlements. 

Relief and social service departments of business corporations. 

Schools of philanthropy. 

Philanthropic foundations. 

Labor unions. 

Employment bureaus. 

Responsibility of the citizen. — The danger of iudiscrunmato giving 
that only pauperizes the recipient should be impressed on the pupils. 
On the other hand, the duty to join actively with those forces that 
are trymg to attack these problems constructively should be as em- 
phatically presented. 



i/d TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 

The following books will be of assistance in acquiring an under 
standing of the problems of charities: 

Keeder: How Ttvo Hundred Children Live and Learn. 
Flint: Tramping with Tramps. 

Devine: The Practice of Charity . 
Richmond : The Good Neighbor. 

Friendly Visiting Among the Poor. 
Conyngton: How to Help. 

The Survey is an invaluable weekly periodical. 

TOPIC XI.— CORRECTION. 

Approach to the topic. — The study of community civics to this 
pomt should have made clear the necessity for order in the com- 
mmiity. That is, there must be rules and regidations to which all 
must conform, if community life is to run smoothly, and if the 
interests of each citizen are to be safeguarded. 

If a few people want to pass a given point at the same time, it is 
usually accomplished in perfect order (if the people are polite) by 
observing common rules of etiquette. In a crowded thorouglifare, 
rules of etiquette are hardly sufficient, and it becomes necessary to 
have regulations which may be enforced by the traffic policeman. 
He sunply represents the interests of the whole community, as against 
possible selfish interests of individuals. Freedom of movement in 
a crowded street can only be secured if all trafiic conforms to the 
regulations. Liberty does not mean the right to do absolutely as 
one pleases; for if A does absolutely as he pleases, he may prevent 
B from domg what he pleases. Only by yieldmg somewhat, each 
to the other, can either have a maximum of freedom, A free com- 
munity is one in which a maximum of liberty is secured to aU members. 

This idea may be illustrated by the rules which control a ball 
game, in which each mdividual must in a measure merge his identity 
and his will into those of the team as a whole. It may also be illus- 
trated by the rules of order in a business meeting; or by the written 
or unwritten regulations for the control of a school. So m every 
phase of commimity life studied m this course, the necessity for 
order must have become apparent. It may be well to review briefly, 
from this, point of view, some of the preceding topics, such as health, 
protection of property, accident prevention. 

There are always some, however, who for one reason or another 
do not conform to the rules which the community as a whole has 
agreed upon. Such individuals or groups of individuals are a source 
of disorder and threaten the rights of others. The question there- 
fore arises. What should the community do with such individuals ? 

The old rule, "An eye for an eye; a tooth for a tooth," represents 
the ancient attitude of the community toward the- offender. Ven- 



TREATMENT OF THE ELEMENTS OF WELFARE. 47 

geance must be had. Not only must punishment be given, but pun- 
ishment in kind — and a little worse, if anything, than the original 
offense. Until very recently the idea of punishment predominated 
in the treatment of offenders against the order of the community. 
GL/et the pupils investigate the punishment of criminals in colonial 
times, for example.) 

Pimishment still holds a prominent place in the treatment of 
offenders agamst the law; but the tendency now is more and more 
to try to transform the offender mto an orderly and efficient mem- 
ber of the commimity. Punishment may still be necessary in many 
cases, but it is losing its vengeful character and is becoming more 
and more correctional and preventive. 

Means of correction.— With an understanding of the attitude 
toward offenders against law and order (criminals and delmquents) 
described above, the object should now be to discover the means by 
which and the extent to which the local community, the State, and 
the Nation are seeking to prevent crime and to make useful citizens 
out of those who would otherwise be obstacles to individual and 
community welfare. Such topics as the following may be worked 
out: 

^^^lat policy is followed in the treatment of offenders against the order of your 
school? To what extent is corporal punishment practiced? Under Avhat condi- 
tions is it justifiable? Are there special classes or schools for chronic offenders or 
"incorrigibles" in your school system? How does the treatment of pupils in such 
classes or schools differ from that in regular classes? How far does this difference 
m treatment imply something wrong with the regular school methods rather than 
with the offending pupils themselves? Discuss pupil participation in school gov- 
ernment in its relation to school discipline. 

"What is likely to be the effect of treating a youthful first offender as if he were a 
real criminal? Discuss the evils of imprisonment of such youthful offenders along 
with older criminals and of subjecting them to public trial in open court. "What 
means have been adopted in your community to prevent first offenders from con- 
tinuing a criminal course? Is your community doing as much as other communi- 
ties in this respect? "What relation have compulsory school-attendance regulations 
to the prevention of delinquency? 

W%at are the principal causes of crime in your local community and State? To 
what extent are they inherent in the individual criminal; to what "extent in exist- 
ing social conditions? "V^Tiat are your local community and your State doing to 
remove both kinds of causes? 

To what extent is the treatment of prisoners in the local jails and State prisons 
punitive and to what extent correctional? In what ways should the conditions in 
your local jails be improved? 

LIST OF AGENCIES. 

Rules and laws: 

School regulations. 
Local ordinances. 
State laws. 
National laws. 



48 TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 

Agencies for law enforcement: 

Machineiy of school administration and discipline. 

Parental, truant, and special schools. 

Reform schools and reformatories. 

Jails and prisons. 

Labor colonies. 

Juvenile courts. 

Courts for adults. 

Probation and parole. 

Prison-reform associations. 

Responsibility of the citizen. — Obtain copies of the local ordinances 
that are most often broken, such as those relating to playing ball on 
the street, throwing snowballs, care of rubbish, or regulation of 
traffic. Let the class study these, explam their meanmg, and find 
out exactly how they may help in the enforcement of these laws. 

The good citizen will be careful to take the right attitude toward 
those who are accused of having broken the law. In the first place 
he will not jump to the conclusion that a person is guilty until he 
has been proven so. In the second place he will be anxious to 
understand the causes or motives that have led to the wrongdoing 
and, although he may not condone the wrongdoing, he wiU be char- 
itable m his judgment; and, finally, in his attitude toward any who 
have served imprisonment he will be willing to give a helping hand. 

TOPIC Xn.— HOW GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES ARE CONDUCTED. 

Approach to the topic. — Throughout the course that has preceded, 
constant reference has been made to the part played by govern- 
mental agencies — ^local, State, and National — in securing to the citi- 
zens of communities the various elements of welfare. It is now time 
to organize the pupils' knowledge of these agencies more systemati- 
cally. Time will probably not permit an exhaustive technical study 
of the mechanism of government m all its detail; nor, indeed, is such 
study desirable in this course. The aims should rather be to fix the 
conception of government as a means by which the entire community 
may cooperate; to show how the citizens do cooperate in the work 
of governing; to leave with the pupil a clear view of the essential 
functions of government and a broad knowledge of the main features 
of its organization; and to stimulate a desii'e to know more about it. 
The changing character of our Government to meet new conditions 
should be emphasized. 

Means hy which the community governs itself. — After reviewing, on 
the basis of the preceding topics, the necessity and purposes of 
government, the foUowuig topics relatmg to the organization and 
methods of self-government may be studied briefly: 



TREATMENT OF THE ELEMENTS OF WELFARE. 49 

LIST OF AGENCIES. 

Direct self-government. — The to-wn meeting. National and State constitutions as 
representing the direct will of the people. Recent development of the initiative, 
referendum, and recall. 

Representative self-government. — Reasons for. Methods of representation. Pro- 
portional representation. 

Division of governing powers.— J^oc2\, State, National. Reason for such, division. 
Relations between State and local; between State and National. 

Separation of powers. — Legislative, executive, judicial. Reasons for. Degree of 
separation in National, State, county, and city governments. Checks and balances. 

Selection of representatives. — The suffrage. Nominations: Conventions, direct 
primaries, preferential primaries. Elections; Party system, short ballot. The civil 
pervice, civil service reform, machine politics. 

General organization of government. — Local (township, county, village, or city). 
State, National. 

Res2)onsihility of the citizen. — Responsibility of voters; of nonvoters. 
Civic education. Difference between education for public service as 
a career and the civic education of the lay citizen. See Part I, 
p. 16, for distinction between the responsibility of the citizen and 
that of the official as such. The necessity for obedience from the 
point of view of government as a means of cooperation. Responsi- 
bility for business methods in government. 

TOPIC Xm.— HOW GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES ARE FINANCED. 

Approach to the topic. — The governmental agencies which protect 
the rights of the citizen and maintain order in the community cost 
a great deal. They must be paid for by the people, whose interests 
they serve. The following topics may be investigated: 



LIST OF AGENCIES. 



Sources of revenue. 
Methods of taxation: 

Budget making. 

Appropriations. 

Assessment. 

Equalization. 

Exemptions. 

Imports and excises. 



Methods of checking expenditures: 

Reports. 

Audits. 

Budget exhibits. 
Methods of borrowing money. 



Responsibility of the citizen. — The subjects of evasion of taxes, 
extravagance and inefficiency in the expenditure of the people's 
money, and ignorance on the part of citizens regarding the way in 
which their money is spent and the returns they are gcttmg for it, 
are among those that may be discussed. 



50 



TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 



TOPIC XIV.— HOW VOLUNTARY AGENCIES ARE CONDUCTED AND 

FINANCED. 

So much money is spent and so much community service is per- 
formed by volmitary agencies that it is worth while to examine the 
methods by which typical agencies of this kind are organized, con- 
ducted, and fuianced. Voluntary, agencies are so numerous that it 
is impossible to give a comprehensive list, but such as the following 
are typical and worthy of study: 

LIST OF AGENCIES. 



A child-labor organization. 

A humane society. 

A bureau of municipal research. 

A consumers' league. 

A local newspaper. 



A private hospital. 

A playground association. 

A church. 

A charity organization society. 

A social settlement. 

A boaid of trade or chamber of commerce. 

Responsihility of the citizen. — Not only the question of the respon- 
sibihty of the citizen for cooperation with worthy voluntary agencies 
may be discussed, but also such questions as whether these organiza- 
tions have a similar obhgation to that of governmental agencies for 
economy and efficiency, and for accounting to the public for work 
accomplished and money spent. 



PART III. 
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SUGGESTIONS. 



TEXTBOOKS. 



It lias been attempted in this manual to explain the scope and 
method of community civics. It is clear that the object of study is 
the real community and the real relations of each citizen to his own 
community life. Nevertheless, a textbook in the hands of the class 
will be invaluable, provided it is of the right kind and is used in the 
right way. 

A textbook should not be selected nor used merely as a reservoir 
of facts for the pupil's study. Its primary purpose should be to guide 
the pupil in his search for, and observation of, the facts of his own 
community life, to help him to organize his knowledge, and to inter- 
pret the facts and relations which he discovers outside of the book. 
It should help and not hinder teacher and pupils to maintain the 
point of view and spirit of community civics and, somewhat para- 
doxically, direct attention away from the book itself. Textbooks that 
approximate this ideal are not numerous, but the considerations 
mentioned should be among those that determine a selection. 

SOURCE MATERIALS. 

The kind of facts needed are concrete and particular facts about 
the commimity which the class is studying. A good deal of such 
information can be gathered by direct observation and by inquiry of 
parents and acquaintances. But, manifestly, information gathered 
by this means alone would be incomplete, superficial, and inaccurate. 

The most useful sources of information and material regarding the 
local community are the local newspapers, reports issued by the 
various departments of the local government, and reports of local 
voluntary agencies, such as boards of trade, charitable and civic 
organizations, bureaus of municipal research, etc. In many com- 
munities there are local histories and publications by local historical 
societies. Such material is usually poorly organized for the uses of 
community civics, but it affords important data to be woven into the 
work of the class. 

For correspondmg data relatuig to the State or national commu- 
nities there arc reports and bulletins issued by States and the National 

51 



52 TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 

Government; also newspapers and periodicals, and the reports and 
other publications of voluntary organizations of State-wide or national 
scope. 

Many of the weekly and monthly periodicals contain appropriate 
material. The following list is representative: 

The American City. Monthly. 87 Nassau Street, New York, $2 a year. Both, 

a city edition and a town and county edition are issued each month. 
The Survey. Weekly. 105 East Twenty-second Street, New York, $3 a year. 
The World's Work. Monthly. Garden City, New York, $3 a year. 
Literary Digest. Weekly. 354 Fourth Avenue, New York, $3 a year. 
Current Opinion. Monthly. 134 West Twenty-ninth Street, New York, $3 a year. 
The Outlook. Weekly. 105 East Twenty-second Street, New York, $3 a year. 

Newark, N. J., has set an example in the pubhcation of material 

relating to local history and civic life for the use of the schools. This 

has been done through the cooperation of the public library and the 

school board. (See "The Study of a City in the Schools of that 

City," by J. C. Dana, Pedagogical Semmary, 18:329-335.) Other 

commmiities are doing similar work thi-ough other agencies. It will 

often be found possible to enhst the cooperation of libraries and other 

agencies outside of the schools in preparing and pubhshing valuable 

material of this kind. 

REFERENCE TEXTS. 

There should be available for reference in every class copies of 
various standard texts on civics or government other than the one in 
regular use by the class. Such books are numerous and varied in 
kind. Some relate particularly to city problems and government; 
others treat principally of the National Government. Many of them 
deal chiefly with the organization and operations of government. 
Some of the more recent subordinate such information to a discussion 
of civic and social problems. It is not intended in community 
civics that the mechanism of government be entered into in great 
detail, but it is sometimes necessary to trace out such facts. 

Fm-ther, it is always desirable to compare the point of view of dif- 
ferent authors and to compare what actually exists in the pupils' 
community with what various authors think ought to exist or with 
what does exist in other communities. 

It should always be the effort, however, to treat such book informa- 
tion as supplementary to first-hand information acqmred by observa- 
tion or from original sources. 

For the teacher who wishes to ground herself more thoroughly in 
the theor}^ and practice of government in its various aspects, or in 
economic and social problems, there is an abundance of literature of 
both general and special character. The more of such literature the 
teacher of civics can master, the better will she be prepared profes- 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SUGGESTIONS. 53 

sionally for her work. But these treatises on various phases of 
poUtical science, economics, and sociology have Httle direct bearing 
on the methods of community civics. It has therefore not seemed 
appropriate to append to this manual a list of such titles. 

Of even greater importance than these, to the teacher of community 
civics, are books and articles dealing directly with the several topics 
treated in Part II of this manual — public health, charities, immigra- 
tion, good roads, conservation, etc. Some of this literature is also 
adapted for reference by children. It has not been possible to pre- 
pare a selected list of references relating to the topics of Part II in 
time for publication in this manual. Such references may be found 
in some of the textbooks. It is hoped that a special committee wiU 
soon prepare for publication a comprehensive bibliography for the 
guidance of high-school teachers of the social studies. Meanwhile, 
it is suggested that for titles not available through libraries and other 
local channels teachers write to their State universities or State 
libraries w^ith as definite a statement as possible as to the kind of 
material wanted. 

LABORATORY MATERIAL. 

It is desirable to assemble a permanent collection of working mate- 
rial, which may be augmented and revised from year to year by the 
work of successive classes. Such laboratory material may include: 

Laws and ordinances. — Federal and State constitutions; city charter, and charters of 
other cities; State laws and city ordinances. 

Reports and documents. — Town reports; mayors' messages and reports; reports of 
municipal departments; reports and bulletins of National and State Governments; 
reports of voluntary organizations. 

Specimen forms. — Licenses, permits, contracts, franchises, tax-assessment lists, tax 
receipts, ballots, petitions, etc. Also forms used by voluntary agencies. 

Plans and models. — Showing present or proposed public works, such as city plans; 
park, boulevard, and street improvements; model tenements; docks; water and 
sewage plants; street lighting; grade-crossing improvements; public buildings. 

Maps. — Maps should be made and used freely. Inexpensive outline maps of the city, 
town, or county should be used for marking in various features, such as traction 
lines; grade and elevated railroad crossings; fire-alarm boxes; school buildings; play- 
grounds; parks; industrial sections; and any other features that can be shown on 
maps. Maps of the State may be used in a similar manner to show transportation 
lines, industrial centers, location of State institutions, etc. 

Pictures and lantern slides. — Lantern slides representing civic activities, industrial 
activities, city plans, public buildings, etc., arc extremely useful. Loan collec- 
tions of slides are to be had at very slight expense. The American Civic Associa- 
tion, Union Trust Building, Washington, D. C, has a large number of slides cover- 
ing a wide range of subjects, the use of which may be secured at nominal cost. 
State universities sometimes make available collections of slides. Collections of 
photographs and illustrations clipped from periodicals for a comparison of different 
communities are also useful. 

Charts and graphs. — Facts relating to many phases of civic life may be made vivid by 
the use of charts, graphs, diagrams, etc. 



54 TEACHING OF COMMUNITY CIVICS. 

Pupils should make their own collections as far as possible. They 
may write letters of request to public officials, voluntary organiza- 
tions, and business establishments for reports and other publications 
and illustrative material and acknowledge receipt of the same. If 
they can not bring in every magazine article that they see bearing on 
their work, they may at least furnish the references in correct form. 
They can make newspaper clippings, which should be classified and 
arranged in convenient form for reference. Pictures may be collected 
and arranged in the same way. Maps and charts may be made. 

Exhibits may sometimes be prepared by the civics classes to which 
the entire school and parents may be invited. Such exhibits may 
represent comprehensively the civic life of a neighborhood or some 
one important phase of the civic life of the entire community. Pupils 
of the HaiTison Technical High School, of Chicago, in cooperation 
with agencies outside of the school, recently prepared a neighborhood 
public health exhibit which was visited by 33,000 people in 10 days. 

Many groups of picked boys and girls, with the aid of principal and teachers, got 
statistics and information downtown and at home about their neighborhood, enlarged 
maps, made diagrams, photographed institutions and lettered and mounted the panels, 
or served as guides and interpreters, ushers, and in features of the evening program, thus 
helping the school educate the surrounding community on its own public health con- 
ditions. 

REFERENCES ON METHOD, 

Community civics is a new subject with new methods. The litera- 
ture on the subject is limited. The following references are given in 
the belief that they will be helpful to the teacher in acquiring the 
point of view, the spirit, and the method of the subject: 

United States Bureau of Education: 

Civic Education Series (mimeographed circulars) — 
No. 1. Community civics: What it is. 
No. 2. Training for citizenship : What it means. 
Nos. 4-8. Abstract of the 1914 report of the N.E.A. committee on social 

studies, not otherwise published. 
No. 8. Standards for judging civic education. 
Annual Report of the United States Commissioner of Education, 1914, Ch. 
XVIII, "The trend of civic education," by Arthur W. Dunn. (Also reprinted 
in pamphlet form.) 
Bulletin, 1915, No. 17, "Civic education in elementary schools as illustrated in 

Indianapolis," by Arthur W. Dunn. 
Bulletin, 1913, No. 41, pages 16-27, Report of the Committee on Social Studies of 
the National Education Association, 1913. 
Barnard, J. Lynn: The teaching of civics in elementary and secondary schools. Pro- 
ceedings, National Education Association, 1913. 
Barnard, J. Lynn: A practice school course in civics. National Municipal Review, 

Vol. I, No. 2. 
Cabot, Ella Lyman, and others: A course in citizenship. Houghton M'fflin Co. 
Dana, John Cotton: The study of a city in the schools of that cit.v Pfidagogical Sem- 
inary, 18: 329-335. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SUGGESTIONS. 55 

Dewey, John: Ethical principles underlying education. University of Chicago 

Press. 
Dunn, Arthur W. : Aims and methods. Introduction for teachers in The Community 

and the Citizen (revised edition). D. C. Heath & Co. 
Gillette, J. M. : An outline of social study for elementary schools. American Journal 

of Sociology, 19: 491-509. 
Goodwin, Frank P.: Why teach community civics? Ohio Educational Monthly, 59: 

415-420. 
Hill, Mabel: The teaching of civics. Houghton Mifflin Co. 
Kendall, C. N., and Mirick, George A.: How to teach the fundamental subjects, ch, 

iv, "Civics." In press. Houghton Mifflin Co. 
King, Irving: Education for social efficiency. Appleton. 
The social aspects of education. Appleton. 
Lewis, W. D.: Democracy's high school. Houghton Mifflin Co. 

Orr, WQliam: The high school and the civic spirit. Journal of Pedagogy, 18: 88-99. 
Sheppard, James J.: Municipal civics in elementary and high schools. Journal of 

Education, 71: 96-97, 102, 132-133. 
Yerkes, Helen K.: Civics in elementary schools. Atlantic Educational Journal, 7: 

222-223, 300-301, 367-369. 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF EDUCATION. 

[Note.— With the exceptions indicated, the documents named below will be sent free of charge upon 
application to the Commissioner of Education, Washington, D. C. Those marked with an asterisk (*) 
are no longer available for free distribution, but may be had of the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C, upon payment of the price stated. Remittances should be made 
in coin, currency, or money ordir. Stamps are not accepted. Numbers omitted are out of print.] 

1906. 

*No. 3. State school systems: Legislation and judicial decisions relating to public education, Oct. 1, 1904, 
to Oct. 1,1906. Edward C. Elliott. 15 cts. 

1908. 

*No. 5. Education in Formosa. Julean n. Arnold. 10 cts. 

*No. 6. The apprenticeship system in its relation to industrial education. Carroll D. Wright. IS ots. 

1909. 

*No. 1. Facilities for study and research in the offices of the United States Government in Washington. 

Arthur T. Hadley. 10 cts. 
*No. 2. Admission of Chinese students to American colleges. John Fryer. 25 cts. 
*No. 3. Daily meals of school children. Caroline L. Hunt. 10 cts. 
No. 5. Statistics of public, society, and school libraries m 1908. 
*No. 6. Instruction in the fine and manual arts in the United States. A statistical monograph. Henry 

T. Bailey. 15 cts. 
No. 7. Index to the Reports of the Commissioner of Education, 1S67-1907. 
*No. 8. A teacher's professional library. Classified list of 100 titles. 5 cts. 
*No. 9. Bibliography of education for 1908-9. 10 cts. 
No. 10. Education for efficiency in raUroad service. J. Shirley Eaton. 

*No. 11. Statistics of State universities and other institutions of higher education partially supported by 
the State, 1908-9. 5 cts. 

1910. 

*No. 1. The movement for reform in the teaching of religion in the public schools of Saxony. Arley B. 

Show. 5 cts. 
No. 2. State school systems: III. Legislation and judicial decisions relating to public education. Oct. 

1, 1908, to Oct. 1, 1909. Edward C. Elliott. 
*No. 5. American schoolhouses. Fletcher B. Dresslar. 75 cts. 

1911. 

*No. 1. Bibliography of science teaching. Sets. 

*No. 2. Opportunities for graduate study in agriculture in the United States. A. C. Monahan. Sets. 

*No. 3. Agencies for the improvement of teachers in service. William C. Ruediger. 15 cts. 

*No. 4. Report of the commission appointed to study the system of education in the public schools of 

Baltimore. 10 cts. 
*No. 5. Age and grade census of schools and colleges. George D. Strayer. 10 cts. 
*No. 6. Graduate work in mathematics in universities and in other institutions of like grade in the United 

States. 5 cts. 
No. 9. Mathematics in the technological schools of collegiate grade in the United States. 
*No. 13. Mathematics in the elementary schools of the United States. 15 cts. 
*No. 14. Provision for exceptional children in the public schools. J. H. Van Sickle, Lightner Witmer, 

and Leonard P. Awes. 10 cts. 
*No. 15. Educational system of China as recently reconstructed. Harry E. King. 10 cts. 
No. 19. Statistics of State imiversities and other institutions of higher education partially suppwted by 
the State, 1910-11. 

1912. 

*Ng. 1. A course of study for the preparation of rural-school teachers. F. Mutchler and W. J. Craig. 5 cts. 

*No. 3. Report of committee on uniform records and reports. 5 cts. 

*No. 4. Mathematics in technical secondary schools in the United States. 5 cts. 

*No. 5. A study of expenses of city school systems. Harlan UpdegrafT. 10 cts. 

*No. 6. Agricultural education in secondary schools. 10 cts. 



n BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF EDUCATION. 

*No. 7. Educational status of nursing. M. Adelaide Nutting. 10 cts. 

♦No. 8. Peace day. Fannie P'ern Andrews. Sets. [Later publication, 1913, No. 12. 10cts.| 
*No. 9. Country schools for city boj's. William S. Myers. 10 cts. 
*No. 13. Influences tending to improve the work of the teacher of mathematics. 5 cts. 
*No. 14. Report of the American commissioners of the international commission on the teaching of mathe- 
matics. 10 cts. 
*No. 17. The Montessori system of education. Anna T. Smith. 5 cts. 
*No. 18. Teaching language through agricultiu-e and domestic science. M. A. Leiper. 5 cts. 
*No. 19. Professional distribution of college and university graduates. Bailey B. Burritt. 10 cts. 

No. 22. Public and private high schools. 
*No. 23. Special collections in libraries in the United States. W. 17 . Johnston and I. G. Mudge. 10 cts. 

No. 27. History of public-school education in Arkansas. Stephen B. Weeks. 
*No. 28. Cultivating school grounds in Wake County, N. C. Zebulon Judd. 5 cts. 

No. 29. Bibliography of the teaching of mathematics, 1900-1912. D. E. Smith and Chas. Goldziher. 

No. 30. Latin- American universities and special schools. Edgar E. Brandon. 

1913. 

No. 1. Monthly record of current educational publications, January, 1913. 
*No. 2. Training courses for rural teachera. A. C. Monahan and R. H. Wright. 5 cts. 
*No. 3. The teaching of modern languages in the United States. Charles H. Handschin. 15 cts. 
*No. 4. Present standards of higher education in the United States. George E. MacLean. 20 cts. 
*No. 6. Agricultiu-al instruction in high schools. C. H. Robison and F. B. Jenks. 10 cts. 
*No. 7. College entrance requirements. Clarence D. Kingsley. 15 cts. 
*No. 8. The status of rural education in the United States. A. C. Monahan. 15 cts. 
*No. 12. The promotion of peace. Faimie Fern Andrews. 10 cts. 

*No. 13. Standards and tests for measuring the efficiency of schools or systems of schools. 5 cts. 
*No. 16. Bibliography of medical inspection and health supervision. 15 cts. 

*No. 18. The fifteenth international congress on hygiene and demography. Fletcher B. Dresslar. 10 cts. 
*No. 19. German industrial education and its lessons for the United States. Holmes Beckwith. 15 cts. 
*No. 20. Illiteracy in the United States. 10 cts. 

*No. 22. Bibliography of industrial, vocational, and trade education. 10 cts. 
*No. 23. The Georgia club at the State Normal School, Athens, Ga., for the study of rural sociology. E. C- 

Branson. 10 cts. 
*No. 24. A comparison of public education in Germany and in the United States. Georg Kerschensteiner. 

5 cts. 
*No. 25. Industrial education in Columbus, Ga. Roland B. Daniel. 5 cts. 
*No. 28. Expressions on education by American statesmen and publicists. 5 cts. 
*No. 29. Accredited secondary schools in the United States. Kendric C. Babcock. 10 cts. 
*No. 30. Education in the South. 10 cts. 
*No. 31. Special features in citj' school systems. 10 cts. 

No. 32. Educational survey of Montgomery County, Md. 
*No. 34. Pension systems in Great Britain. Raymond W. Sies. 10 cts. 
*No. 35. A list of books suited to a high-school library. 15 cts. 
*No. 36. Report on the work of the Bureau of Education for the natives of Alaska, 1911-12. 10 cts. 

No. 37. Monthly record of current educational publications, October, 1913. 
*No. 38. Economy of time in education. 10 cts. 

No. 39. Elementary industrial school of Cleveland, Ohio. W. N. Hailmann. 
*No. 40. The reorganized school playground. Henry S. Curtis. 10 cts. 
*No. 41. The reorganization of secondary education. 10 cts. 

No. 42. An experimental rural school at Winthrop College. H. S. Browne. 
*No. 43. Agriculture and rural-life day; material for its observance. Eugene C. Brooks. 10 ots. 
*No. 44. Organized health work in schools. E. B. Hoag. 10 cts. 

No. 45. Monthly record of ciu-rent educational publications, November, 1913. 
*No. 46. Educational directory, 1913. 15 cts. 

*No. 47. Teaching material in Government publications. F. K. Noyes. 10 cts. 
*No. 48. School hygiene. W. Carson Ryan, jr. 15 cts. 

No. 49. The Farragut School, a Tennessee country-life high school. A. C. Monahan and Adams Phillips. 

No. 60. The Fitchburg plan of cooperative industrial education. M. R. McCann. 
♦No. 51. Education of the immigrant. 10 cts. 
♦No. 52. Sanitary schooLhou.ses. Legal requirements in Indiana and Ohio. 5 cts. 

No. 53. Monthly record of current educational publications, December, 1913. 

No. 54. Consular reports on industrial education in Germany. 

No. 55. Legislation and judicial decisions relating'jtoeducation, October 1,1909, to October 1, 1912. James 
C. Boykinand William R. Hood. 

No. 58. Educational system of rural Denmark. Harold W. Foght. 

No. 59. Bibliography of education for 1910-11. 

No. 60. Statistics of State universities and other institutions of higher education partially supported by 
the State, 1912-13. 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF EDUCATION. IH 

1914. 

*No. 1. Monthly record of current educational publications, Januivry, 1914. £ ct&. 

No. 2. Compulsory school attendance. 
♦No. 3. Monthly record of current educational publications, F.ebfuary, 1914. 5 cts. 

No. 4. The school and the start in life. Meyer Bloomfleld. ''> « ot"''''^'*". 

No. 5. The folk high schools of Denmark. L. L. Friend. ■ ^ , , - 

No. 6. Kindergartens in the United States. 

No. 7. Monthly record of current educational publications, March, 1914. 
*No. 8. TheMassachusettshome-projectplanofvocationalagricidturaleducation. R. W.Sfciinsoii. IScts. 

No. 9. Monthly record of current educational publications, April, 1914. 
*No. 10. Physical growth and school progress. B. T. Baldwin. 25 cts. 
*No. 11. Monthly record of ciurent educational publications. May, 1914. 5 cts. 
*No. 12. Rural schoolhouses and grounds. F. B. Dresslar. 50 cts. 

No. 13. Present status of drawing and art in the elementary and secondary schools of the United States. 
Royal B. Famum. 

No. 14. Vocational guidance. 

No. 15. Monthly record of current educational publications. Index. 

No. 16. The tangible rewards of teaching. James C. Boykin and Roberta King. 

No. 17. Sanitary siu-vey of the schools of Orange County, Va. Roy K. Flannagan. 

No. 18. The public school system of Gary, Ind. William P. Burris. 

No. 19. University extension in the United States. Louis E. Reber. 

No. 20. The riu-al school and hookworm disease. J. A. Ferrell. 

No. 21. Monthly record of current educational publications, September, 1914. 

No. 22. The Danish folk high schools. H. W. Foght. 

No. 23. Some trade schools in Europe. Frank L. Glynn. 

No. 24. Danish elementary rural schools. II. W. Foght. 

No. 26. Important features in rural school improvement. W. T. Hodges. 

No. 26. Monthly record of current educational publications, October, 1914. 
*No. 27. Agricultural teaching. 15 cts. 

No. 28. The Montessori method and the kindergarten. Elizabeth Harrison. 

No. 29. The kindergarten in benevolent mstitutions. 

No. 30. Consolidation of rural schools and transportation of pupils at public expense. A. C. Monahan. 

No. 31. Report on the work of the Bureau of Education for the natives of Alaska. 

No. 32. Bibliography of the relation of secondary schools to higher education. R. L. WaJkley . 

No. 33. Music in the public schools. Will Earhart. 

No. 34. Library instruction in universities, colleges, and normal schools. Henry R. Evans. 

No. 35. The training of teachers in England, Scotland, and Germany. Charles H. Judd. 
*No. 36. Education for the home — Parti. General statement. B.R.Andrews. 10 cts. 
*No.37.— Education for the home— Part II. State action, schools, agencies. B.R.Andrews. 30 cts. 

No. 38. Education for the home— Part III. Colleges and universities. B. R. Andrews. 

No. 39. Education for the home — Part IV. Bibliography, list of schools. B.R.Andrews. 

No. 40. Care of the health of boys in Girard College, Philadelphia, Pa. 

No. 41. Monthly record of current educational publications, November, 1914. 

No. 42. Monthly record of current educational publications, December, 1914. 

No. 43. Educational directory, 1914-1.5. 

No. 44. County-unit organization for the administration of rural schools. A. C. Monahan. 

No. 45. Curricula in mathematics. J. C. Brown. 

No. 46. School savings banks. Mrs. Sara L. Oberholtzer. 

No. 47. City training schools for teachers. Frank A. Manny. 

No. 48. The educational museum of the St. Louis public schools. C. G. Rathman. 

No. 49. Efficiency and preparation of rural-school teachers. H. W. Foght. 

No. 50. Statistics of State universities and State colleges. 

1915. 

No. 1. Cooking in the vocational school. Iris P. O'Leary. 

No<. 2. Monthly record of current educational publications, January, 1915. 

No. 3. Monthly record of current educational publications, February, 1915. 

No. 4. The health of school children. W. IT. Heck. 

No. 5. Organization of State departments of education. A. C. Monahan. 

No. 6. A study of colleges and high schools. 

No. 7. Accredited secondary schools in the United States. Samuel P. Capen. 

No. 8. Present status of the honor system in colleges and universities. Bird T. Baldwin. 

No. 9. Monthly record of current educational publications, March, 1915. 

No. 10. Monthly record of current educational publications, April, 1915. 

No. 11. A statistical study of the public-school systems of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Nor« 

man Frost. 
No. 12. History of public-school education in Alabama. Stephen B. Weeks. 



IV BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF EDUCATION. 

No. 13. The schoolhoiise as the polling place. E. J. Ward. 

No. 14. Monthlj^ record of current educational publications, May, 1915. 

No. 15. MonLh,iy record of current- educational publications. Index, Feb., 1914-Jan., 191.5. 

Ko. 16. Monthi> record of cunelit educational publications, Jime, 1915. 

No. 17. Civic ediicp.t'on In. elementary scLool,s as illustrated in Indianapolis. Arthur W. Duim. 

No. IS. J e^ai od.Ul-^tic^ in Or<iat Bri^Win. II. S. Richards. 

No. 19. Statistics of agricultural, manual training, and industrial schools, 1913-14, 

No. 20. The rural school system of Minnesota. H. W. Foght. 

Q 



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